al-ʿAqīda al-Ṭaḥāwiyya

The issue of ‘Aqidah has become a contemporary challenge for many muslims world-wide. Many followers of the Ahlus Sunnah have become confused due to their exposure to ‘unapproved’ commentaries on the brief yet marvellous book of Imam Tahawi (rahimahullah)

My friend and colleague, Shaykh Fahim Hoosen (may Allah protect him) has done an excellent job in his recent work; a brief english translation and commentary of Al- ‘Aqida Al-Tahawiyya.

A book like this for the english reader was long overdue. May Allah Ta’ala grant the book & its author universal acceptance. Ameen.

Tahawiyya-Final

AQEEDAH QUESTIONS

SALAAT BEHIND DEVIATES
Q. I have read in Aqeedatut Tahaawi and also in Mullah Ali Qaari’s commentary of Fiqhul Akbar that the Ahlus Sunnah perform Salaat behind a man even if he is a faajir (immoral). However, I do not perform Salaat behind these deviant Salafis in prison because Az-Zabeedi’ Al-Hanafi said that Salaat behind the Ahl-e-Hawa is Laa Ya jooz (not permissible).
Please explain the conflict between our Hanafi Scholars on this issue.
A. What you have read in Aqeedatut Tahaawi and Fiqhul Akbar is correct. That is the belief and practice of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah. It is the official position.
Regarding Az-Zabeedi’s statement, firstly, it does not say that Salaat behind the Ahle-Bid’ah is invalid. It says: ‘La tajooz’ which does not mean ‘invalid’. The statement says that one should not perform Salaat behind them. Secondly, his advice is in conflict with the Jamhoor Fuqaha of the Ahnaaf.. Thus, we do not make amal on the obscure and rare opinion. Whilst we do not intentionally seek out a Bid’ati to follow in Salaat, nevertheless if we are in a situation where the Imaam is from among the Ahl-e-Hawa (people of nafsaani desire/deviates), then we do not perform our Salaat alone. We join the Jamaat. In Musjdul Haraam in Makkah, and in Musjidun Nabawi in Madinah, the Imaams are generally Salafi. We join the Jamaat and perform Salaat behind them, and this is in accord with the Aqeedah stated in all our kutub of Aqeedah as you are aware. Thus, you may not utilize AzZabeedi’s version to cancel the clear-cut ruling of the Jamhoor Fuqaha of the Ahnaaf. Salafis (Wahhaabis) are astray, but they are Muslims. We perform Salaat even behind them. However, if a Salafi who makes masah on ordinary socks leads the Salaat, and if we are aware of it, then we repeat the Salaat we had performed behind him, not because we believe him to be a
kaafir, but because his wudhu is not valid.
TA’WEEL
Q. Salafis propagate that it is kufr to make ta’weel (to interpret) the allegorical Qur’aanic verses whereas according to the Ahlus Sunnah it is permissible and sometimes even necessary to resort to ta’weel. I find it difficult to appropriately interpret certain aayat.
A. You are not qualified to resort to Ta’weel. If you do not understand anything, seek guidance from the Ulama and do not distort any meaning with unqualified interpretation.
This can be dangerous for Imaan. Even the Muqallideen Ulama do not resort to Ta’weel. We merely narrate the Ta’weelaat (interpretations) of the senior Ulama of bygone times. The Arabic text which you have quoted in your question No.5, clearly instructs you to refer to the Ulama who understand these issues.
MATH-HAB
Q. I am a follower of the Shaafi’ Math-hab. However, for certain reasons I am inclining to the Hanafi Mathhab. Please offer some advice.
A. You will be justified to come over to the Hanafi Mathhab, only if you lack expert guidance in the Shaafi’ Mathhab of which you are a follower. You may adopt the Hanafi
Math-hab only for a genuine Deeni reason, not for any worldly reason. If it is to gain sound knowledge for the purpose of practising, then your adoption of the Hanafi Mathhab will be correct. In fact, Imaam Tahaawi too was at one stage a Shaafi’. Later he accepted the Hanafi Math-hab.

TAQDEER
Q. Regarding Taqdeer, I have read that the Taqdeer which does not change is called Taqdeer Mubram (Conformed Taqdeer). But Taqdeer Muallaq (Impending Taqdeer) Can change with Dua. Could you expound these concepts?
A. Even Taqdeer Muallaq is an integral part of the allembracing, eternal Taqdeer of Allah Azza Wa Jal. The Mubram-Muallaq exposition is a weak attempt to logically explain what is inexplicable due to its eternal dimension. In other words, in eternity Allah Ta’ala has always been aware that a certain act a million years hence will be changed and substituted with another decree. Brother, this is an issue which should not be probed in depth. The more you probe it, the more intricate and difficult it becomes. Created minds cannever encompass the eternal meanings of eternal issues – issues related to the Zaat and Sifaat of Allah Ta’ala. You tread dangerous ground when you attempt to enter into this minefield. Neither can we explain such issues satisfactorily, nor will we understand these issues in entirety even after entering Jannat.

DIFFERENCES
Q. Why are there so much difference among the Scholars on these issues of Aqeedah?
A. All the finer and subtle transcendental issues pertaining to Aqeedah, Allah’s Zaat and Sifaat – issues on which the Qur’aan, the Ahaadith and the Aathaar of the Sahaabah are silent, are products of the human mind. Thus, the opinions of the Scholars on such issues are essentially the products of their minds, not the products of Wahi. Differences are therefore natural and logical. Thus, the principle is always to find a reconciliation between the conflicting statements of the senior Scholars of the valid  Mathhabs.

MAJLIS VOLUME 21 NUMBER 10

Rules of Taqiyya in the Hanafi Aqeedah

Please explain what is taqiyya and the rules of taqiyya in Hanafi Aqeedah when is it permitted?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

Taqiyyah According to Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah[1]

 

Linguistic Meaning of Taqiyyah

Taqiyyah is the act of protecting one’s self from danger.[2]

Technical Meaning of Taqiyyah

To protect one’s self by displaying an action[3],[4] or speech contrary to one’s belief.[5]

Legality of Taqiyyah[6]

Taqiyyah in normal circumstances is impermissible according to the majority of ‘Ulamā’. It is only permissible in times of dire need. Al Imām Al Qurtubī said, “Taqiyyah is not permissible except if one fears death, or being cut up (into pieces), or great harm.”[7] Allāh Ta‘ālā says,

لَا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَنْ تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً (آل عمران:٢٨)

The believers should not take disbelievers as confidants in place of other believers. And whosoever does that he has no relation with Allāh except if you do so as a protective measure…(Āl ‘Imrān:28) 

This verse is proof for the permissibility of taqiyyah.

When the polytheists of Makkah tortured ‘Ammaār bin Yāsir Radiallāhu ‘Anhu and forced him to utter words of disbelief, Allāh Ta‘ālā revealed the following verse[8]:

مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (النحل:١٠٦)

Whoever disbelieves in Allāh after having faith-not the one who is compelled under duress whilst his heart remains content with belief but the one who is at ease with disbelief- upon them is the wrath of Allāh and for them is a great torment. (Al Naĥl: 106)

The Position of Taqiyyah

When grounds for taqiyyah are found, some consider it to be wājib (necessary). However, the correct opinion according to the ‘Ulamā is that it is best not to opt for taqiyyah and to proclaim one’s belief.[9] Al ‘Allāmah Al Qurtubī substantiates this opinion with the following proofs[10]:

  1. Allāh Ta‘ālā informs this Ummah of the hardships the Aŝhāb Al Ukhdūd endured for the sake of tawhīd (oneness of Allāh). Furthermore, Nabī Ŝallallāhu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam mentioned the narrative to spur the Ŝaĥābah to be steadfast in the face of hardships.
  2. Allāĥ Ta‘ālā mentions the advice Luqmān ‘Alaihis Salām gave to his son:

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ (اللقمان: ١٧)

O my son! Establish ŝalāh, enjoin good, forbid evil, and endure patiently what befalls you. Surely this is among the matters of determination.

  1. Nabī Ŝallallāu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said, “One of the greatest forms of Jihād is a statement of truth in the face of a tyrant ruler.”[11]
  2. Nabī Ŝallallāhu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam advised Abū Al Dardā’ Radiallāhu ‘Anhu, “Do not ascribe partners unto Allāh even though you may be cut up (into pieces) and burnt.”[12]
  3. Many Ŝaĥābah were tortured and they did not waiver: Bilāl, ‘Āŝim, Khubaib, Khabbāb, etc. Radiallāhu ‘Anhum

Conditions/Laws Pertaining Taqiyyah

  • Taqiyyah is only done when a person is amongst non-believers and he fears for his life or wealth. He may even utter words which show love/close friendship as long as his heart is clean of such beliefs.[13]
  • Taqiyyah is not permissible through actions which cause harm to others eg. killing, fornication, stealing, false testimony, circulate the secrets of the Muslims (usually at the time of war), etc.[14]
  • Taqiyyah is also permissible if one is threatened to be beaten (severely).[15]
  • Taqiyyah is only permissible if one actually fears some danger. If no danger is expected taqiyyah is impermissible.[16]
  • Taqiyyah should be used as a last resort.[17]
  • Taqiyyah is not permissible for gain of wealth, position, etc. (except in critical circumstances).[18]

Difference between Taqiyyah of Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah and Shī‘ah[19]

Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah Shī‘ah
Taqiyyah is a concession in Sharī‘ah; it is an exception to the rule. The stricture is to display one’s belief. Taqiyyah is compulsory. “The one who does not practice taqiyyah has no Deen.”[20]
Once the element of the concession of taqiyyah ceases the laxation is uplifted. The command of taqiyyah is perpetual. “Whoever leaves out taqiyyah before our Mahdī emerges, he is not from us.”[21]
Taqiyyah is usually done with non-believers and at time with transgressors. Taqiyyah is done with one’s own people also. “Hold fast to taqiyyah. Whoever does not make it his hallmark with his own people is not from us…”[22]
Taqiyyah is a disliked state. Meaning, a true believer would not like to be in a position to practice on taqiyyah. Taqiyyah holds a high position. The Shī‘ah quote Ja’far Al Ŝādiq, “There is nothing more beloved to me on the face of this earth than taqiyyah.”[23]

 

Conclusion

The Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā’ah propagate truth, character, and high morals in one’s actions and speech. Deception and lying are the hallmarks of Shaitān and his followers. If one is forced to lie in order to save his life, wealth, etc. then he has been permitted to do. However, if one chooses to sacrifice his life for exalting the message of Allāh Ta’ālā he will be rewarded accordingly.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hisham Dawood

Student, Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

http://www.daruliftaa.net


[1]

مأخوذ من الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية بتصرفات

[2]

الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٨٥

[3]

يدخل فيه التقية بالفعل إضافة إلى التقية بالقول و التقية في العمل كما هي في الاعتقاد (الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٨٥)

[4]

و لا يباح الإقدام على القتل في حالة الإكراه به يتبين عظم حرمة المؤمن عند الله تعالى و هو مراد ابن عباس رضي الله عنه انما التقية باللسان ليس باليد يعني القتل و التقية باللسان هو إجراء كلمة الكفر مكرها (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٦، دار النوادر)

[5]

التقية أن يقي نفسه بما يظهره و إن كان يضمر خلافه (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-١٠، دار النوادر)

[6]

و عن الحسن البصري رحمه الله التقية جائزة للمومن إلى يوم القيامة إلا أنه كان لا يجعل في القتل تقية و به نأخذ (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٥، دار النوادر)

[7]

الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي ج-٢ ص-٤٢٩، دار الحديث

[8]

الطبري في تفسير الآية

[9]

و إعطاء التقية في مثل ذلك إنما هو رخصة من الله تعالى و ليس بواجب بل ترك التقية أفضل (أحكام القرآن للجصاص ج-٢ ص-١٦)

[10]

الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي ج-١٠ ص-٢٤٢، دار الحديث

[11]

جامع الترمذي، باب ما جاء أفضل الجهاد كلمة عدل عند سلطان جائر

[12]

ابن ماجه، باب الصبر على البلاء

[13]

التفسير الكبير للرازي ج-٣ ص-١٩٣/١٩٤، دار إحياء التراث العربي

[14]

المصدر السابق

ثم يباح له إجراء كلمة الكفر في حالة الإكراه و لا يباح الإقدام على القتل في حالة الإكراه (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٦، دار النوادر)

[15]

المصدر السابق

[16]

الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٩١

[17]

و يشترط لجواز التقية أن لا يكون للمكلف مخلص من الأذى إلا بالتقية و هذا المخلص قد يكون الهرب من القتل أو القطع أو الضرب… (المصدر السابق ص-١٩٢)

[18]

المصدر السابق ص-١٩٤

[19]

مأخوذ من العزلة و الخلطة لسلمان العودة

[20]

العزلة و الخلطة لسلمان العودة

[21] ibid

[22] ibid

[23] ibid

Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah and a Refutation of the Madaakhilah

INTRODUCTION

Islaam is a perfect Deen. Allaah Ta`aalaa states this in the Qur’aan Kareem:

 

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِيْ وَرَضِيْتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِيْناً

{“On this day I have perfected your Deen, completed My Favour upon you and chosen for you Islaam as your Deen.”} [Soorah al-Maa’idah, 5:3]

When something is perfect, there can be no alterations to it: no additions or subtractions, as additions and subtractions are only necessary when something is imperfect, in order to make it better. Allaah Ta`aalaa revealed a Perfect Deen and it is impossible for anyone to “improve it”.

Furthermore, Allaah Ta`aalaa also promised to protect this Deen, and this promise is repeated several times in the Qur’aan Kareem:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

{“Verily, We revealed Adh-Dhikr (the Qur’aan Kareem) and We are its Protectors.”} [Soorah al-Hijr, 15:9]

And Allaah Ta`aalaa says:

يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَيَأْبَى اللَّهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ

{“They (the Kuffaar and Munaafiqeen) desire to extinguish the Noor of Allaah (the Deen of Islaam) with their mouths, but Allaah refuses except to perfect His Noor even though the Kaafiroon detest it.”} [Soorah at-Tawbah, 9:32]

And Allaah Ta`aalaa says:

يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ

 

{“They (the Kuffaar and Munaafiqeen) desire to extinguish the Noor of Allaah (the Deen of Islaam) with their mouths, but Allaah shall perfect His Noor even though the Kaafiroon detest it.”} [Soorah as-Saff, 61:8]
Allaah Ta`aalaa gave this Perfect Deen to Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, and it is perfect from every imaginable aspect, be it in terms of the `Aqeedah of Islaam, or the Sharee`ah of Islaam, or the Akhlaaq, Mu`aamalaat (business dealings) and Mu`aasharaat (social etiquettes) taught by Islaam, or the aspect of Tasawwuf/Tazkiyah/Sulook. Every single aspect of this Deen was perfect in the very lifetime of Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, and Sahaabah-e-Kiraam رضوان الله عليهم inherited this Perfect Deen from Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, and they were the best of heirs, protecting and preserving every aspect of the Deen with their lives and their wealth.

From Sahaabah-e-Kiraam رضوان الله عليهم, it then passed down to their students: the Taabi`een, and they were shining stars. The Taabi`een passed this Deen on to their students: the Atbaa`-ut-Taabi`een (the followers of the Taabi`een). This entire era of Sahaabah-e-Kiraam, Taabi`een and Atbaa`-ut-Taabi`een is known as the Khayr-ul-Quroon (Best of Times), and they were known as the Salaf-us-Saaliheen (The Pious Predecessors). The `Ulamaa who lived in this era dedicated their entire lives to the protection and imparting of this Deen.

The Atbaa`-ut-Taabi`een passed the Deen on to their students, who passed it on to their Students, and so on and so forth, down the 1,440 years of Islaam until it reached us today. At no point in this glorious History of Islaam was the Deen ever “lost”. No part of the Deen was ever “lost”, not even what people would consider “minute”, let alone the most important part, which was the `Aqeedah (Beliefs) of Islaam.

The idea that Islaam has been lost for a thousand years only to emerge when some “Imaam” emerges from some pit is a ridiculous Shi`a belief which no Muslim would ever pay heed to. Yet, the Salafis peddle a similar belief when they attempt to pull the wool over the eyes of people and have them believe that after the time of the Salaf, the entire Ummah lost the true `Aqeedah and it only re-emerged with Imaam  ibn Taymiyyah. Then, after Imaam ibn Taymiyyah passed away it was again lost until Muhammad  ibn `Abdil Wahhaab an-Najdi brought back the “true `Aqeedah of the Salaf”.

The false ideas peddled by the Salafis resulted and continue to result in argumentation, fights and confusion the world over, and it prompted one brother to request a clarification on these issues, and that is what we will attempt to do in this brief Kitaab, In Shaa Allaah.

A Salafi by the name of Abu Iyaad Amjad Rafiq, who is a Madkhali living in Birmingham, wrote a series of articles on Aqidah.com, a very well-known Madkhali Salafi website, and in these articles he shamelessly attacks the Ash`ari and Maatureedi Madhaahib of `Aqeedah which have been followed by the Muslim Ummah for over a thousand years. This is no surprise, because according to many Salafis, the Ash`aris and Maatureedis are in fact Kuffaar and are in the same category as the Raafidhah. There are explicit texts from their scholars unequivocally proclaiming this, thus no one should dismiss this as an exaggeration. Later in this Kitaab, we shall present some of these statements, In Shaa Allaah.

The brother has requested clarification on some of the issues posed by the Salafis and by Abu Iyaad in particular, in these articles of his.

Time is very short and most people are too busy to invest much of it into reading very lengthy refutations, thus we intend to keep this rebuttal concise and avoid dragging it out unnecessarily, so that people may be able to read, understand and benefit, In Shaa Allaah.

In this book, we will briefly discuss the following issues:

  1. Who are the Madkhalis?
  2. Answering the Brother’s Questions
  3. Refuting a Baatil Article
  4. A Brief Biography of Imaam al-Ash`ari
  5. A Brief Biography of Imaam al-Maatureedi
  6. The Praises of the `Ulamaa for Imaam al-Ash`ari and Imaam al-Maatureedi
  7. The Vast Majority of the Ummah were Ash`aris or Maatureedis
  8. The Anthropomorphism (Tajseem) of the Salafis
  9. The Salaf Were Not Mujassimah (Anthropomorphists)
  10. The Contradictions of the Heads of Salafiyyah
  11. Conclusion

 

May Allaah Ta`aalaa make this effort a means of benefit to us and to all of those who read it, and may Allaah Ta`aalaa accept it,

آمين يا رب العالمين

Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah and a Refutation of the Madaakhilah_booklet

Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah and a Refutation of the Madaakhilah