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CONTAMINATED FOOD

  1. CONTAMINATED FOOD
  2. HARAAM: Haraam foods are such foods in which the prohibition is clear. There is no doubt in its prohibitions, e.g. haraam meat and food in which haraam ingredients are used.
  3. SPIRITUALLY HARAAM: Halaal food, whether meat or any other kind acquired with unlawful money or by unlawful means. While such food remains halaal, its consumption is haraam for the one who has acquired it by foul or haraam means.
  • MUSTABAH: Such food, the permissibility of which is in doubt. Some factors indicate permissibility while other factors indicate prohibition. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded abstention from such doubtful foods.
  1. PHYSICALLY IMPURE: Generally, the foods prepared in public places such as cafes, restaurants and hotels fall in this classification. Although halaal, such food is not tayyib (wholesome). Some physical dirt and unclean hands, etc. go into its production, hence its contamination.
  2. SPIRITUALLY IMPURE: Such food which is halaal and ordinarily tayyib, but for people of high taqwa (i.e. for the Auliya) even such halaal tayib food constitutes contamination, and impedes their spiritual progress, e.g. halaal tayyib food served by a faasiq or zaalim, halaal tayyib food served with a contaminated worldly motive.

 

The greater the degree of one’s abstention from contaminated food, the more will on incline towards piety and ibaadat and the converse is also true. Abstention from the first two categories (mentioned above) is Fardh. Eationg such food is a major sin for which Jahannuum is the punishment. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said about those who consume the contaminated food mentioned in these two categories:

“The Fire of Jahannum is more befitting for a human body nourished by haraam.”

The Auliya say that the high stages of piety a man attains are dependent on his halaal and tayyib consumption of food. A man can spend an entire lifetime in abundance of thikr, nafl ibaadat and fasting etc, but as long as the food he consumes is not physically and spiritually pure, he will be deprived of the high stages of taqwa and Divine proximity.

The Month Of Rajab

by Mufti Muhammad Taqi al-Uthmani (Principal Of Darul ‘Uloom Karachi)
Rajab is the seventh month in the Islamic lunar calendar. This month was regarded as one of the sacred months (Al-Ash-hur-al-hurum) in which battles were prohibited in the days of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam). It is also a prelude to the month of Ramadan, because Ramadan follows it after the intervening month of Sha’ban. Therefore, when the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) sighted the moon of Rajab, he used to pray to Allah in the following words:

“O Allah, make the months of Rajab and Sha’ban blessed for us, and let us reach the month of Ramadan (i.e. prolong our life up to Ramadan, so that we may benefit from its merits and blessings).”

No specific way of worship has been prescribed by the Shari’ah in this month. However, some people have invented some special rituals or practices in this month, which are not supported by reliable resources of the Shari’ah or are based on some unauthentic traditions. We would like to explain their correct position and status in Islam hereunder:

1. Celebration of Lailatul Mi’raj

It is generally believed that the great event of Mi’raj (ascension of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) to the heavens) took place in the night of 27th of Rajab. Therefore, some people celebrate the night as “Lailatul- Mi’raj” (the night of ascension to heavens).

Indeed, the event of mi’raj was one of the most remarkable episodes in the life of our beloved Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam). He was called by Almighty Allah. He traveled from Makkah to Baitul-Maqdis and from there he ascended the heavens through the miraculous power of Allah.
He was honored with a direct contact with his Creator at a place where even the angels had no access. This was the unique honor conferred by Allah to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) alone. It was the climax of the spiritual progress which is not attained by anybody except him. No doubt the night in which he was blessed with this unparalleled honor was one of the greatest nights in the history of this world.

But, Islam has its own principles with regard to the historic and religious events. Its approach about observing festivals and celebrating days and nights is totally different from the approach of other religions. The Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) did not prescribe any festival or any celebration to commemorate an event from the past, however remarkable it might have been. Instead, Islam has prescribed two annual celebrations only. One is Eid-ul-Fitr and the other is Eid ul-Adha. Both of these festivals have been fixed at a date on which the Muslims accomplish a great ‘ibadah (worship) every year. Eid-ul-Fitr has been prescribed after the fasts of Ramadan, while Eid-ul-Adha has been fixed when the Muslims perform the Hajj annually. None of these two eids is designed to commemorate a particular event of the past which has happened in these dates. This approach is indicative of the fact that the real occasion for a happy celebration is the day in which the celebrators themselves have accomplished remarkable work through their own active effort. As for the accomplishments of our ancestors, their commemoration should not be restricted to a particular day or night. Instead, their accomplishments must be remembered every day in the practical life by observing their teachings and following the great examples they have set for us.

Keeping this principle in view, the following points should be remembered with regard to the “Lailatul-mi’raj”:

1) We cannot say with absolute certainty on which night the great event of mi’raj took place. Although some traditions relate this event to 27th night of the month of Rajab, yet there are other traditions that suggest other dates. Al-Zurqani (Rahimahullah), the famous biographer of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) has referred to five different views in this respect: Rabi-ul-Awwal, Rabi-u-Thani, Rajab, Ramadan and Shawwal. Later, while discussing different traditions, he has added a sixth opinion, that the mi’raj took place in the month of Zulhijjah.

Allamah Abdul-haq Muhaddith Dehlawi (Rahimahullah), the well-known scholar of the Indian subcontinent, has written a detailed book on the merits of Islamic months. While discussing the ‘Lailatul-mi’raj’ has mentioned that most of the scholars are of the view that the event of mi’raj took place in the month of Ramadan or in Rabi-ul-awwal.

2) It is also not known in which year the event of Mi’raj took place. The books of history suggest a wide range between the fifth-year and the twelfth year after the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) was entrusted with prophethood.

Now, if it is assumed that the event of Mi’raj took place in the fifth year of his prophethood, it will mean that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) remained in this world for eighteen years after this event. Even if it is presumed that the mi’raj took place in the twelfth year of his prophethood, his remaining life-time after this event would be eleven years. Throughout this long period, which may range between eleven years and eighteen years, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) never celebrated the event of mi’raj, nor did he give any instruction about it. No one can prove that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) ever performed some specific modes of worship in a night calling it the ‘Lailatul-mi’raj’ or advised his followers to commemorate the event in a particular manner.

3) After the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) also, no one of his companions is reported to celebrate this night as a night of special acts of worship. They were the true devotees of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) and had devoted their lives to preserve every minute detail of the sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) and other Islamic teachings. Still, they did not celebrate the event of mi’raj in a particular night in a particular way.

All these points go a long way to prove that the celebration of the 27th night of Rajab, being the lailatul-mi’raj has no basis in the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) or in the practice of his noble companions. Had it been a commendable practice to celebrate this night, the exact date of this event would have been preserved accurately by the Ummah and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) and his blessed companions would have given specific directions for it.

Therefore, it is not a Sunnah to celebrate the Lailatul-mi’raj’. We cannot declare any practice as a sunnah unless it is established through authentic sources that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) or is noble Companions have recognized it as such, otherwise it may become a bid’ah about which the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) has observed in the following words: “Whoever invents something in our religion which is not a part of it, it is to be rejected.”

Being mindful of this serious warning, we should understand that the 27th night of the month of Rajab is not like ‘Lailatul-qadr’ or ‘Lailatul-bara’ah’ for which special merits have been mentioned expressly by, either the Holy Qur’an or by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam).

However, all the recognized modes of ‘ibadah (worship) like Salat, recitation of the Holy Qur’an, dhikr, etc. are commendable any time, especially in the late hours of night, and obviously the 27th night of Rajab is not an exception. Therefore, if someone performs any recognized ‘ibadah in this night from this point of view nothing can stop him from doing so, and he will be entitled to the thawab (reward allocated for that recognized ‘ibadah insha-Allah.) But it is not permissible to believe that performing ‘ibadah in this night is more meritorious or carries more thawab like ‘Lailatul-qadr’ or ‘Lailatul-bara’ah’ because this belief is not based on any authentic verse or on a sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam). Similarly, it is not a correct practice to celebrate this night collectively and to invite people to special ritual congregations.

4) Some people suggest some special modes of worship to be performed in this night. Since no special mode of worship is prescribed by the Shari’ah in this night, these suggestions are devoid of any authority and should not be acted upon.

It is believed by some that the Muslims should fast on the 27th of Rajab. Although there are some traditions attributing special merits to the fast of this day yet the scholars of hadith have held these traditions as very weak and unauthentic reports which cannot be sufficient to establish a rule of Shari’ah. On the contrary, there is an authentic report that Sayyiduna ‘Umar, Radi-Allahu anhu used to forbid people from fasting on this day, rather, he used to compel them to eat if they had started fasting.

It should be borne in mind here that a “nafl” fast can be observed any day (except the six prohibited days of the year); therefore, fasting on 27th of Rajab is not prohibited in itself. What is prohibited is the belief that fasting on this day is more meritorious than fasting in other normal days. One should not fast on this day with this belief. But if someone fasts therein, believing it to be a normal nafl fast, there is no bar against it.

Sacrifice (qurbani) in the month of Rajab

In the days of ignorance (jahiliyyah) the Arabs used to offer the sacrifice of a goat in the month of Rajab. This sacrifice used to be called ‘Ateerah or Rajabiyyah. This sacrifice was offered in the name of different so-called gods and their icons. In the beginning of Islam, this custom was retained, but the Muslims modified it by offering the sacrifice of ‘Ateerah in the name of Allah instead of the false gods. But finally, this custom was abandoned and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) prohibited the offering of ‘Ateerah. In a tradition of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah, Radi-Allahu anhu, reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) has said: “Far’ is nothing and ‘Ateerah is nothing.”

Abu Hurairah, Radi-Allahu anhu, has explained in the same tradition that Far’ was the first child of a she-camel. Whenever a she-camel delivered its first child, the Arabs used to sacrifice it in the name of their so-called gods, while the ‘Ateerah was a goat used to be sacrificed in the month of Rajab. Since the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) stopped both these customs, ‘Ateerah is no longer a recognized practice.

‘Umrah in the month of Rajab

Ibn ‘Abidin (Rahimahullah), the well-known scholar of the Islamic jurisprudence, has mentioned that the people of Makkah (in his days) used to perform ‘umrah in the month of Rajab. Perhaps they believed that performing ‘umrah in this month is more meritorious than in other months. Then Ibn Abidin himself has rejected the authenticity of this practice, because no tradition of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) is found to this effect. Conversely Sayyidah ‘Aishah, Radi-Allahu anha, has expressly negated the presumption by saying that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) never performed an ‘umrah in the month of Rajab. (Sahih Muslim 1:409)

However, Ibn ‘Abidin (Rahimahullah) has quoted a narration that ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, Radi-Allahu anhu, completed the renovation of Ka’bah shortly before 27th of Rajab, and as a sign of gratefulness he performed ‘umrah and slaughtered some animals. But this report cannot form the basis of a recognized annual practice, firstly because the report is not very authentic, and secondly because it does not mention that Abdullah ibn Zubair, Radi-Allahu anhu, had adopted it as a continuing practice. At the most, he performed ‘umrah once as a sign of gratefulness on the completion of Ka’bah. It does not mean that he performed it as a characteristic of the month of Rajab. Therefore, performing ‘Umrah in this month is like performing it in any other month and no special merit can be attached to it merely because it has been performed in the month of Rajab.

The Salat of “Ragha’ib”

Another special mode of worship attributed by some people to this month is the Salat of Raghai’b. According to the custom of such people, this Salat is performed in the night of first Friday of the month of Eajab. The Salat of Raghaib is said to consist of twelve rak’ats to be performed in pairs with six salams, and in each rak’at the surah al-qadr is recited three times followed by the Surah-al-ikhlas. This type of Salat is also not based on any sound source of Shari’ah. Therefore, almost all the jurists and scholars of Shari’ah have held that the Salat of Raghaib is a baseless practice and it is not permissible to treat it as a recognized practice of this month. It is true that there is a tradition, narrated by Razin (Rahimahullah), the author of a book of hadith, which attributes the origin of this practice to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) but almost all the scholars of the science of hadith have held it to be absolutely unauthentic. Therefore, no importance can be attached to it.

Distribution of Breads:

Another baseless practice in the month of Rajab is that the people bake special types of breads and, after reciting some verses and prayers on them, distribute them among their friends and neighbors. This custom has two different shapes.

1) In some communities, this custom is celebrated on 17th of Rajab on the assumption that Sayyiduna Ali, Radi-Allahu anhu, was born on 11th of Rajab and the 17th of Rajab is the day on which his ‘Aqiqa (Shaving of his head) was performed. In order to celebrate this happy event, the breads of some special type are prepared and after reciting Surah Al-Mulk on them, they are distributed among the relatives and friends. These breads are generally called “breads of Tabarak” because Surah Al-Mulk is usually recited on them.

This practice is baseless because it is never proved that Sayyiduna Ali, Radi-Allahu anhu, was born on 11th of Rajab or that his Aqiqa was performed on 17th of this month and, as explained earlier, even if these events are proved to have happened in those days, their commemoration through these specific rituals is not warranted by the Shari’ah.

2) A more common practice of this type is observed on 22nd of Rajab whereby some breads and meals of a special type are prepared and distributed among the people. Since these special meals are usually placed in some bowls made of clay, the custom is usually known as “Koonda”, an Urdu equivalent of such bowls. It is usually believed that the custom is designed to make ‘isal-al-thawab to the soul of Sayyiduna Jafar Al-Sadiq who himself has directed his followers to observe this custom and has promised them that whoever observes it, his desires will be fulfilled.

All these assumptions also have no basis at all, neither historically, nor according to the principles of Shari’ah. In fact, the date of 22nd of Rajab has no concern whatsoever with Sayyiduna Jafar al-Sadiq, Rahimahullah. According to the historians, he was born on 8th of Ramadan 80 A.H. and died in Shawwal 148 A.H. No specific event of the life of Sayyiduna Jafar al-Sadiq is proved to have happened on this date. The people believing in the custom refer to a coined story mentioned in an unauthentic book named “Dastaan-e-Ajeeb”.

Briefly stated, the gist of the story is that a poor woodcutter lived in Madinah in the days of Jafar Al-Sadiq. He went abroad to earn his livelihood. His wife was employed in the house of the Prime Minister. Once she was cleaning the courtyard of the Prime Minister when Sayyiduna Jafar al-Sadiq passed by her. It was 22nd of Rajab. He advised her to bake some breads of a special type and make ‘isal-al-sawab to him. According to this story, he promised her that if her desire is not fulfilled after this practice, she can catch hold of him at the doom’s day. On hearing this, the woman made a vow that if her husband will come back with a considerable amount of wealth, she will observe the custom of “Koonda”. On the same day her husband, who was in another country, found a valuable treasure in the earth and came back with it to Madinah where he established himself as a rich man and started living in a magnificent castle. When his wife told the story to the wife of the Prime Minister, she disbelieved her and because of this disbelief, she and her husband, the Prime Minister, were punished by Allah. He was removed by the king from the prime minister-ship and was imprisoned in a jail and was ordered to be hanged. While being in the prison, the wife of the Prime Minister remembered that she had disbelieved the story of Jafar al-Sadiq told to her by her maidservant and their misery might be the punishment of their disbelief. On this point, she and her husband repented before Allah and made a vow to observe the custom of “Koonda”, if they are released from the jail. After they made such a vow, the whole scenario of the events changed suddenly. The king released the Prime Minister from the jail and reinstated him on his former position.

As can be seen by any reasonable person, this story is totally forged on the face of it. The person who has coined this story did not even know that Madinah had never a king nor a Prime Minister. All the Muslim rulers were named as caliphs and had no Prime Minister at all. In the days of Umayyads, their capital was Damascus and in the days of Abbasids, their permanent seat was in Baghdad.

It is ironic that the story of such a woodcutter is not even known to anybody in Madinah, nor in any city of the Arab countries. No Arabic book has ever referred to it. It has no mention except in an Urdu book ‘Dastaan-e-Ajeeb’, the author of which is unknown. One can easily see that a custom based on such a fallacious and mythical story can never be an Islamic custom. Islam has always been far away from such superstitions.

Therefore, this baseless custom should completely be avoided by true Muslims. Some historians have opined that in fact, this custom has been coined by some Shi’ites because the date of 22nd of Rajab is the date of the demise of Sayyidna Mu’awiyah whom they take as their biggest enemy. They took that date as a happy occasion and made the Sunni Muslims also to celebrate it on the pretext of the above-mentioned story.

Be that as it may, it is evident that such customs have crept into the Muslim society by their long association with Hindus who commemorate different historical events of their religion in the like manner. The Muslims must be careful about these customs because they are not only an invention of ignorance but also the imitation of non-Muslims in their religious rituals. No doubt the “‘isal-al-thawab’ to the soul of a deceased Muslim, and particularly to a pious person is not only permissible but also a commendable practice but the Shari’ah has not prescribed a particular date, nor a particular mode to do so. If someone wants to make “‘isal-al-thawab” to Sayyiduna ‘Ali, Radi-Allahu anhu, or to Ja’far al-Sadiq, he can do it any day and by performing any act of worship, like Salat, fast, Sadaqah, dhikr etc. There is no reason why it should be restricted to a special type of meal or bread distributed on a particular date. What makes this practice worse is the fact that the people accustomed to this practice deem it as necessary as a fard (obligation); rather they treat it as more necessary than fard because they do not care to perform the obligatory Salat or to fulfill the rights of men obligated on them, but they are very strict and punctual to perform these activities. Moreover, if a person does not observe this practice, they reproach him and call him with bad names. Such behavior makes this custom a bid’ah which is condemned by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) as a misguidance. Therefore, Muslims must abandon all such practices and should not cling to it only because it has been the practice of their society for many years. A Muslim is supposed to follow the dictates of Shari’ah and not the practice of the society, especially if it violates any of its principles.

Conclusion

The upshot of the above discussion is that the Shari’ah has not prescribed any specific way to observe the month of Rajab or to perform a specific mode of worship or a ritual in any one of its dates. However, being a prologue to the month of Ramadan, it should be availed of for preparing oneself for Ramadan and one should pray Allah to make him reach the blessed month and to benefit from its unique merits.

https://pearlsoftaqwa.wordpress.com/2020/02/21/the-month-of-rajab/#more-3330

JALSAHS OF RIYA

JALSAHS OF RIYA, TAKABBUR AND ISRAAF_Ebooklet

ALLAAMAH SHA’RAANI’S NASEEHAT FOR THE MERRYMAKING JALSAH MOBS
Proffering Naseehat to the vile molvis, miserable sheikhs and the bogus khaanqah ‘spiritual guides’, Allaamah Abdul Wahhaab Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) of the 10th Islamic century, begins with the citation of the following Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam):

“By Allah! If you knew what I know (of Maut, the Qabr and the Aakhirah), you will laugh little and cry much; you will not derive pleasure from your wives in your beds, and you will flee into the wilderness beseeching Allah Azza Wa Jal (for refuge and safety).”

Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) narrated:

“It is indeed surprising to see a man laughing while Jahannam is ahead of him, and it is surprising to see a man happy while Maut is hotly pursuing him.”

Allaamah Sha’raani says: “Whoever saw Hasan Basri (Rahmatullah alayh), he would conclude that he (Hasan Basri) had just emerged from a momentous calamity. This was because of the grief observable on him.”
Hadhrat Fudhail Bin Iyaadh (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“There are numerous people lost in laughter (and merrymaking) while their kafan has just arrived.”
Hadhrat Ibn Marzooq (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“A man who claims to be remorseful and grief-stricken for his sins, but then indulges in delicious foods is a liar.”
Presenting the tafseer of the Qur’aanic Aayat: ‘It (the Book of Deeds) does not omit any sagheerah (sin) or kabeerah (sin), but it records it.’, Imaam Auzaai’ (Rahmatullah alayh) said that the meaning of sagheerah is tabassum (to smile), and the meaning of kabeerah is qahqahah (loud laughter).” Commenting on this tafseer, Allaamah Sha’raani said that in the context of Imaam Auzaai’s tafseer, tabassum means such smiling in which there is sound although substantially less than qahqahah (loud laughter).
Thaabit Bunaani (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “A Mu’min laughs only when he is oblivious (ghaafil) of Maut.”
Aamir Bin Qais (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “Those who indulge in much laughter on earth, will cry much in Jahannam.”
Saeed Bin Abdul Azeez (Rahmatullah alayh) had not laughed for forty years until his death.

Hadhrat Anas Bin Maalik (Radhiyallahu anhu) said: “In a gathering, there is a shaitaan with every person who laughs.”
There is israaf (waste) in everything. Wahab Bin Al-Ward (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “Laughing without israaf is to smile without exposing the teeth. Clothes without israaf are garments sufficient to cover the body and shield it from the weather conditions. Food without israaf, is food which is sufficient for eliminating hunger and which does not fully fill the stomach.”
Abdul Bin Abu Zaid (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “When some among the Sahaabah began joking (being merry), the following Qur’aanic Verse was revealed: ‘What! Has the time not arrived for the people of Imaan that their hearts become tender for the Thikr of Allah and for the truth He has revealed? Do not be like those who have been given the Kitaab before you (i.e. the Yahood and Nasaara). Then after a long period lapsed (and they became desensitized) their hearts hardened. Numerous of them are faasiqoon.” (Al-Hadeed, Aayat 16)

Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallahu anha) narrated that once when Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) entered the Musjid he found some Sahaabah laughing. With his mubaarak face reddening, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Are you laughing despite your Rabb not having revealed that you are forgiven? Concerning your laughter, Allah Ta’ala has revealed this verse……. (as above).”

Smitten with remorse, the Sahaabah asked: “What is the kaffaarah (expiation) for us having laughed?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Cry as much as you have laughed.”

Once when some people from Yamaama were by Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu), this verse was recited. The people began to weep. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) commented: “We also used to cry like this. Then there came such people whose hearts were hard.” (i.e. Like the jalsah merrymaking mobs).
Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “There are two factors which distinguish the Ahlullah (People of Allah) from the Ghair Ahlullah (those who are not the people of Allah, but are the people of the devil). The People of Allah are perpetually focused on the Aakhirah, and they engage in making preparations for the Aakhirah.” These two features of the Ahlullah are not to be found in the merrymaking Ghair Ahlullaah jalsah mobs who indulge in festivities, eating, laughter, waste and riya.

From the aforegoing Naseehat of Allaamah Sha’raani and from many Qur’aanic Aayaat and Ahaadith, the villainy and hurmat of the glut of jalsahs should be quite manifest to every sincere seeker of the Haqq. The hifz jalsah held at the Hilal Musjid in Durban as well as all other jalsahs in our time are all in diametric conflict with the teachings and spirit of the Deen. In fact, these jalsahs are immoral and the participants are callously obscene.

How is it possible for Muslims of healthy Imaan to indulge in wasteful merrymaking practices such as are advertised on their posters when the Ummah at large is suffering in their millions. The ulama and the so-called hadhrats are indeed most callous and obscene in organizing and participating in these khuraafaat jalsahs of riya, takabbur and israaf. Their hearts have become hard like those of the Yahood and Nasaara as mentioned in the Qur’aan Majeed specifically in relation to merrymaking.

Muslim refugees are literally freezing to death currently. They are without shelter, without even a small tent to shield themselves against the freezing weather conditions. But these molvis and sheikhs with their obese bodies and gluttonous appetites for sumptuous meals in emulation of Hindu Brahmin priests, are satanically ghaafil about the plight of the Ummah despite them teaching in their darul jahals. Ahaadith such as:

“The Muslimoon (the Ummah) are like one person. If the eye pains the whole body is affected, and if the head pains, the whole body is affected.”

While they teach such Ahaadith and are fully aware of the command implied, they are recklessly oblivious in their shaitaani ghaflat. And the same applies to those who squander large sums of money on so-called ‘umrah’ trips which are nothing but haraam holidaying and merrymaking. While they may succeed in their self-deception they cannot fool Allah Ta’ala. They will rue their callousness at the time of their Maut.

JalsahsOfRiya

GAZA SOCCER TEAM

THE HARAAM GAZA SOCCER TEAM

IT IS HARAAM TO CONTRIBUTE

FUNDS FOR HOSTING THIS HARAAM TEAM

QUESTION

A soccer team from Gaza has been invited to South Africa during March of this year. The hosts are appealing for R180,000 to host the team. They are also appealing for accommodation and other expenses for the team of 35 boys. Is it permissible to contribute for this team?

ANSWER

Contributing money or anything else towards this haraam soccer team is Haraam.  It is not permissible to participate on or to facilitate this team in any way whatsoever.

 

While millions of Muslims are languishing in extreme poverty and in dire straits of living right on the door steps of Gaza, and while Gaza itself is constantly under Israeli threat, the shaitaani rulers of Gaza allow a shaitaani haraam team to travel, waste money, indulge in haraam sport, etc.

 

The evil life style of the Gaza people provides the valid explanation for   Allah’s Punishment on them. Instead of turning more towards Allah Ta’ala in their miserable plight, they are drifting further from Allah Ta’ala into the camp of shaitaan. The lifestyle and attitude of the Gaza people justify Allah’s Athaab which has settled on them.

 

The people of Gaza are immoral. They have not acquired any lessons from the Israeli-inflicted miseries. They exploit each other; usurp the properties of each other. The Shariah’s Law of Inheritance is most wickedly pillaged and plundered by Palestinians. The one who is in control of the properties of the deceased usurps it. Heirs are denied their right of inheritance. This disease is universal in Palestine. Palestinians themselves have reported such satanic usurpation of their properties. The rulers of Gaza facilitate and entrench this usurpation of the properties of others. That is why Allah Ta’ala has handed the land to the Yahood. They have absolutely no regard for the Shariah. Immoral dancing and celebrating have become their customs. They do not deserve to be the caretakers of Jerusalem or the entire Holy Land of Palestine. This is Allah’s decree, hence He has awarded Palestine to the Yahood.

 

In the following Aayat is a somber warning for the people of Gaza as well as for all other Muslim communities who are grounded in immorality and degradation of every kind imaginable:

 

“We shall most surely give them to taste of the lesser punishment, not the greater punishment, for perhaps they will (understand) and return (to the Path of the Deen).”

“Who is viler than the person who is reminded of the Laws of Allah, then he turns away? Verily We shall extract vengeance from the criminals.” (Qur’aan)

They are not heeding the signs and the warnings. Therefore, the Greater Punishment is awaiting them.

 

With their haraam soccer teams and preponderance of vice, the people of Gaza are criminals.

 

MUSLIMS SHOULD NOT CONTRIBUTE ANY THING FOR HOSTING THE HARAAM TEAM.

25 Jamadil Ukhra 1441 – 20 February 2020

CORRUPT IVF FATWA

FATWA ZIGZAGERY

A CORRUPT IVF FATWA

Question

Kindly peruse this ruling. It appears from this ruling that there is leeway for the permissibility of IVF. Is this correct? Is artificial insemination permissible at any time?

THE FATWA OF MUFTI EBRAHIM DESAI

Choosing the gender of a child with IVF – Is it Halaal?

QUESTION

“Can I make use of a type of IVF where a couple can choose the gender e.g. boy or girl, is this Halaal?

ANSWER:

Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran,

لِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ يَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ إِنَـثاً وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ الذُّكُورَ – أَوْ يُزَوِّجُهُمْ ذُكْرَاناً وَإِنَـثاً وَيَجْعَلُ مَن يَشَآءُ عَقِيماً إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ قَدِيرٌ (الشوري:49)

Translation: “To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female upon whom He wills and bestows male upon whom He wills. Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the All-Knower and is Able to do all things.”

(Comment by The Majlis: So far, the fatwa is correct.)

Human beings by nature have desires and wants. Almighty Allah is the Knower of all things. He knows exactly what is best for us. If He decides to give us something, there can be no doubt regarding it being best for us. Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran,

وَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَعَسَى أَن تُحِبُّواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ وَاللّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ (البقرة:216)

Translation: “But perhaps you hate a thing, but it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing, but it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.”

It is a fundamental principle of Islamic Jurisprudence that one must avoid imposing upon one’s physical body actions that are usually considered to be unnatural and unconventional unless there is a dire necessity for doing so. (This is correct – The Majlis) For instance, the human body is accustomed to acquiring its food and drink orally through the gullet, but there are times when, due to certain ailments, food cannot be given to a patient orally. In such cases, the patient is then fed intravenously. Oral feeding is the conventional method whereas the intravenous one will be considered to be the unconventional one.

Shari’ah only permits the intravenous method due to necessity as man cannot usually survive without food and drink.”

(Comment by The Majlis: The Mufti has expressed himself incorrectly on this point. The body has not been artificially customized for the natural process/method of consuming food. The way people are consuming their food is natural. It is the natural method created by Allah Ta’ala. It is not merely a ‘conventional’ method. It is not a method which has been adopted and made conventional. It is the only natural way for the ingestion of food.
When a person, due to some grave disease, is unable to eat with his mouth and is forced by circumstances to consume food with his posterior or be fed intravenously, then such methods will be unnatural, not merely ‘unconventional’. An unconventional method can sometimes be natural, e.g. drinking water with a straw, or eating with knives and forks, or eating from a brand new or a thoroughly cleansed chamber pot. While this kind of westernized shaitaan will be eating naturally (i.e. via his mouth), the method will be unconventional and haraam.
Thus, the unnatural method will be permissible ONLY in case of Dharoorat (DIRE NEED), not hallucinated ‘need’ as the liberal muftis of this time imagine. Dire Need (Dharoorat) is only a need upheld by the Shariah.
The factor of Zigzagery

At this stage in his fatwa, the Mufti has subtly introduced the first step in his Zigzag datwa. He has subtly introduced the factor of Dharoorat to render the reader’s mind conducive for the acceptance of the corrupt, baatil conclusion of his liberal view.

The ploy is to imprint in the mind of readers that the desire of having a child is a Dharoorat, hence the ‘permissibility’ of artificial insemination. Thus the zigzagging between Haqq and baatil should be conspicuous to all intelligent men.
Continuing his fatwa, the Mufti says:

“In the absence of necessity, Shari’ah does not recommend the usage of unconventional methods of infusing objects into the body.” (This is incorrect. It is a devious attempt to mismanipulate the Shar’i principle of Dharoorat, and to confuse the unlearned. In the absence of ‘necessity’ (Dharoorat), the Shariah forbids usage of unnatural and unconventional methods. The Shariah does not merely “not recommend” the haraam methods. It strictly forbids the satanic methods. This is the second step in the process of zigzagery. -The Majlis)

Zigzagging back to the Shariah, the Mufti says:

“That brings us to your question regarding artificial insemination. As all the modern methods of artificial insemination (GIFT, IVF, IVI and ICSI) are not conventional (in fact are unnatural satanic methods – The Majlis) methods of inducing fertilization nor are these procedures a matter of life and death, opting for these procedures would be against the principles of Shari’ah.

In instances where these procedures are carried out by a doctor, which is more likely, many aspects of it will be considered to be prohibited by the Shari’ah.

Firstly, the male will be required to extract sperm through masturbation. This is not permissible. In the event the sperm is extracted lawfully, the female will be required to expose her Awrah to the doctor. One is only allowed to expose the Awrah to a doctor in the case of dire necessity.

(The Majlis comments: This section of the fatwa conforms with the Shariah. However, the Mufti reverting to his zigzag haraam liberal trajectory, avers):
“If you are unable to conceive through natural methods, and there are no other alternatives, then there is leeway in making use of IVF.”
(Our Comment: This is the satanism which shaitaan has inspired into the brains of the Mufti. With this stupid statement he seeks to impose on the understanding of ignorant people that sterility (uqmah/barrenness) is Shar’i Dhuroorat justifying the commission of haraam and a major sin.
While this wayward Mufti begins his Zigzag fatwa with the appropriate Qur’aanic Aayat, he conveniently or surreptitiously or ignorantly refrains from taking into account the penultimate statement of the Aayat which has a fundamental bearing on the issue under discussion. In this statement, Allah Azza Wa Jal says: “He makes barren whomever He wills.”
The sterility whether in the woman or the man, is the act and will of Allah Ta’ala. In this Aayat, Allah Azza Wa Jal explicitly informs us of His Will and Desire. Under no stretch of Imaani rationality and reasoning can it ever be valid to act in contravention of Allah’s Will and Desire despite the fact that in this dunya Allah Ta’ala has bestowed to humans limited ability to act in conflict with His Will. Since this dunya is the arena of trial and conflict where Muslims have to choose between halaal and haraam, vice and virtue, the limited freewill has been granted to man.
However, the freedom to act in violation of Allah’s Will and Desire does not halaalize the improper utilization of the freedom to act. It is Allah’s Will and Desire that adultery be not committed despite the fact that man has been granted the freedom to act in conflict with the Divine Will. Similarly, it is HARAAM to violate Allah’s Will and Desire regarding ‘barrenness’ despite the haraam ability to do so by the satanic IVF technique invented by the Satanist atheists.
It is this satanistic technique of artificial insemination which is a conglomeration of haraam, filth and satanism which this miserable Mufti Sahib has attempted to slip into the Permissibility folds of the Shariah by the intentional misapplication of the Shar’i principle of Dharoorat.
The Mufti has painfully, stupidly and satanically laboured most deviously and without dexterity, to zigzag his baatil view of permissibility into the fabric of the Shariah.
If a woman is unable to conceive lawfully by the natural method created by Allah Ta’ala, or by even permitted unconventional methods (such as Ta’weez and Amaliyaat, and lawful medicine) which all come within the purview of lawful Asbaab (valid material ways), then it does not justify nor render permissible the haraam satanic techniques of the atheists kuffaar. Her only recourse is Dua, Sabr and Tawakkul. There is no other option. –The Majlis)
The Mufti then says:

“However, it will still not be permissible to tamper with any aspect of the process to ensure a specific gender. Whatever has been decreed for you can never escape you. If you are granted males, be thankful. If you are granted females, then too you must be thankful.”

(While this is correct, it is an attempt to zigzag back to the Shariah, albeit a futile attempt. It is futile because it is in stark conflict with his ‘leeway’ view. There is no difference between this haraam attempt and the other haraam attempt of IVF for the purpose of pregnancy. Both techniques, i.e. to resort to haraam for inducing pregnancy, and for resorting to haraam for selecting the gender of the future child, are satanically villainous, hence HARAAM. There is absolutely no Shar’i Dharoorat principle applicable in these two haraam techniques.Whtever has been willed by Allah Ta’ala for you, accept it with contentment.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “It is of the good fortune of a person that he is pleased with whatever Allah has decreed for him/her.” – The Majlis
With conspicuous hollowness and insincerity, the Mufti advises:

“Have hope in the mercy and bounties of Almighty Allah. Make Dua to Almighty Allah if you wish for a specific gender. Almighty Allah says in a Hadith Qudsi,

يقول الله تعالى: أنا عند ظن عبدي بي

Translation: “I am to my slave as he thinks of me, (i.e. I am able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him).”
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

OUR FURTHER COMMENT

The haraam and corrupt fatwa issued by Mufti Ebrahim Desai on the issue of IVF is incompatible with the sentiments expressed by the Mufti in the above avernment. These sentiments may not be restricted to only selective haraam acts. Dua, Tawakkul, Sabr and Ridha apply to all states of the Mu’min. These noble attributes of moral excellence have to be incumbently employed in all instances which demand abstention. Just as it is Waajib to abstain from the haraam technique of gender-selection, so too is it Waajib to abstain from the haraam technique of inducing pregnancy.

Our advice to the Mufti Sahib is to endeavour the restoration of his Imaani bearings by shunning western ideas of liberalism which the Muftis of today adopt especially in modern financial matters, more specifically in the dalliance with the riba banks. Fear Allah Ta’ala. Maut constantly hovers over our heads. Prepare for the stay in Barzakh. Do not barter away your Aakhirah in exchange for the jeefah of this dunya. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhhi wasallam) said:

“The dunya is jeefah (carrion).”

24 Jamadil Ukhra 1441 – 19 February 2020

A Flu Vaccine – Is it permissible?

QUESTION
assalam o alaikum I want to ask about the nasal flu vaccine Fluenz. It has pig content in it. I asked the nureses for the alternative such as shots they said it can only be given to children at high risk so cannot be fiven to my daughter. please can you advise whether or not we can give this vaccine to our daughter. she is 2.5 yrs old mashAllahjazak Allah kher

ANSWER
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.In principle, the Fuqaha have allowed using haram medicine for the purpose of treatment based on need.[i] As such the permissibility is conditioned on the following: i. There is a genuine need now, not in the future.[ii] ii. One has confidence that the medicine will cure. It does not need to be absolute certainty,[iii] however, a mere possibility that it may cure is not sufficient.[iv] If a reliable doctor, preferably Muslim, informs the patient that the medicine will cure, this condition will be fulfilled.[v] iii. There is no halal alternative.[vi]A vaccine is used before an illness in order to help fight the infection if it occurs. As such, there is no need at present. Rather, it is a need which may occur in the future and therefore, the first condition is not fulfilled.One cannot say with confidence that the vaccine will help cure, since getting the viral infection in the first place is only a possibility. Thus, if the infection is a mere possibility, the cure is also a mere possibility. As such, condition number two is not fulfilled.Moreover, if a child is infected with the virus, there is a halal alternative, which is the shots that are given. Therefore, the third condition is not fulfilled.Note: If in a specific case wherein a child is particularly vulnerable of catching the virus and if they catch the virus they may die or be subject to severe or irreversible harm, the ruling may change.[vii] However, this would be addressed on a case-by-case basis. The ruling above is based on a normal situation wherein there is merely a possibility of catching the virus and there is no reason to believe that the child may die or suffer severe harm if they catch the virus. And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Faizal DhadaStudent, Darul IftaaUK Checked and Approved by,Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

[i] المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني لابن مازة البخاري – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٥، ص = ٣٧٤ 

ولو أن مريضاً أشار إليه الطبيب بشرب الخمر؛ روي عن جماعة من أئمة بلخ: أنه ينظر إن كان يعلم يقيناً أنه يصح حل له التناول، وقال الفقيه عبد الملك حاكياً عن أستاذه: أنه لا يحل له التناول.

وفي «النوازل»: رجل أدخل مرارة في إصبعه للتداوي قال أبو حنيفة رضي الله عنه: يكره، وقال أبو يوسف: لا يكره، والفقيه أبو الليث أخذ بقول أبي يوسف لمكان الحاجة.

 

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني لابن مازة البخاري – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٥، ص = ٣١٥-٣١٦

إذا سال الدم من أنف إنسان، فكتب فاتحة الكتاب. بالدم على أنفه، وجبهته جاز للاستشفاء والمعالجة، و (لو) أراد أن يكتب ذلك بالبول؛ لم ينقل ذلك عن المتقدمين، وقد قيل: لا بأس به إذا علم أن فيه شفاء؛ وهذا لأن الحرمة تسقط عند الاستشفاء على ما يأتي بيانه بعد هذا إن شاء الله تعالى.

 

العناية شرح الهداية للبابرتي – دار الفكر – ج = ١٠، ص = ٦٧

وَقَوْلُهُ (إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُسْتَعْمَلَ الْمُحَرَّمُ كَالْخَمْرِ وَنَحْوِهَا لِأَنَّ الِاسْتِشْفَاءَ بِالْمُحَرَّمِ حَرَامٌ) قِيلَ إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً، فَإِنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَيْسَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ آخَرُ غَيْرُهُ يَجُوزُ لَهُ الِاسْتِشْفَاءُ بِهِ. وَمَعَ قَوْلِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -: إنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ. يُحْتَمَلُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ذَلِكَ فِي دَاءٍ عُرِفَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ غَيْرُ الْمُحَرَّمِ، لِأَنَّهُ يُسْتَغْنَى بِالْحَلَالِ عَنْ الْحَرَامِ. وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُقَالَ: تَنْكَشِفُ الْحُرْمَةُ عِنْدَ الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يَكُونُ الشِّفَاءُ بِالْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ بِالْحَلَالِ.

 

الجوهرة النيرة على مختصر القدوري للحدادي – المطبعة الخيرية – ج = ٢، ص = ١٧٥

قَوْلُهُ: (وَنَبِيذُ التَّمْرِ، وَالزَّبِيبِ إذَا طُبِخَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا أَدْنَى طَبْخٍ) أَيْ حَتَّى يَنْضَجَ (فَهُوَ حَلَالٌ وَإِنْ اشْتَدَّ إذَا شَرِبَ مِنْهُ مَا يَغْلِبُ عَلَى ظَنِّهِ أَنَّهُ لَا يُسْكِرُهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ لَهْوٍ وَلَا طَرَبٍ) هَذَا عِنْدَهُمَا.

وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ: هُوَ حَرَامٌ، وَالْخِلَافُ فِيمَا إذَا شَرِبَهُ لِلتَّقَوِّي فِي الطَّاعَةِ أَوْ لِاسْتِمْرَاءِ الطَّعَامِ أَوْ لِلتَّدَاوِي وَإِلَّا فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ.

 

درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام لملا خسرو – دار إحياء الكتب العربية – ج = ١، ص = ٣٥٦

حاشية الشرنبلالي

(قَوْلُهُ: وَلَا يُبَاحُ الْإِرْضَاعُ بَعْدَهُ) هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ.

وَقَالَ فِي شَرْحِ الْمَنْظُومَةِ الْإِرْضَاعُ بَعْدَ مُدَّتِهِ حَرَامٌ؛ لِأَنَّهُ جُزْءُ الْآدَمِيِّ وَالِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ بِغَيْرِ ضَرُورَةٍ حَرَامٌ عَلَى الصَّحِيحِ نَعَمْ أَجَازَ الْبَعْضُ التَّدَاوِيَ بِهِ إذَا عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ يَزُولُ بِهِ الرَّمَدُ، كَذَا ذَكَرَهُ التُّمُرْتَاشِيُّ وَالْبَعْضُ لَمْ يُجَوِّزُوا شُرْبَهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي اهـ. وَقَدَّمْنَا مَا يَجُوزُ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِالْمُحَرَّمِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عِنْدَ الضَّرُورَةِ لَمْ يَبْقَ حَرَامًا.

 

 

فتاوى قاضيخان – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٣، ص = ٣٠٥ 

رجل برجله جراحة قالوا يكره له أن يعالجه بعظم الإنسان والخنزير لأنه محرم الانتفاع * ولو وضع العجين على الجروح إن عرف بها الشفاء قالوا لا بأس به لأنه دواء * والذي رعف ولا يرقأ دمه فأراد أن يكتب بدمه على جبهته شيئا من القرآن قال أبو بكر الاسكاف رحمه الله تعالى يجوز قيل لو كتب بالبول قال لو فيه شفاء لا بأس به * قيل لو كتب على جلد ميتة قال إن كان فيه شفاء جاز *

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٦، ص = ٣٤٠

(قَوْلُهُ وَأَجَازَهُ أَبُو يُوسُفَ لِلتَّدَاوِي) فِي الْهِنْدِيَّةِ وَقَالَا: لَا بَأْسَ بِأَبْوَالِ الْإِبِلِ وَلَحْمِ الْفَرَسِ لِلتَّدَاوِي كَذَا فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ اهـ ط. قُلْت: وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ أَدْخَلَ مَرَارَةً فِي أُصْبُعِهِ لِلتَّدَاوِي رُوِيَ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ كَرَاهَتُهُ، وَعَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ عَدَمُهَا، وَهُوَ عَلَى الِاخْتِلَافِ فِي شُرْبِ بَوْلِ مَا يُؤْكَلُ لَحْمُهُ، وَبِقَوْلِ أَبِي يُوسُفَ أَخَذَ أَبُو اللَّيْثِ اهـ.

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٦، ص = ٣٨٩

حاشية

(قَوْلُهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي) أَيْ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَوْ هُزَالٍ مُؤَدٍّ إلَيْهِ لَا لِنَفْعٍ ظَاهِرٍ كَالتَّقَوِّي عَلَى الْجِمَاعِ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَاهُ وَلَا لِلسِّمَنِ كَمَا فِي الْعِنَايَةِ (قَوْلُهُ وَلَوْ لِلرَّجُلِ) الْأَوْلَى وَلَوْ لِلْمَرْأَةِ (قَوْلُهُ وَجَوَّزَهُ فِي النِّهَايَةِ إلَخْ) وَنَصُّهُ وَفِي التَّهْذِيبِ: يَجُوزُ لِلْعَلِيلِ شُرْبُ الْبَوْلِ وَالدَّمِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ لِلتَّدَاوِي إذَا أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ شِفَاءَهُ فِيهِ، وَلَمْ يَجِدْ مِنْ الْمُبَاحِ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ، وَإِنْ قَالَ الطَّبِيبُ يَتَعَجَّلُ شِفَاؤُك بِهِ فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ، وَهَلْ يَجُوزُ شُرْبُ الْقَلِيلِ مِنْ الْخَمْرِ لِلتَّدَاوِي؟ فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ كَذَا ذَكَرَهُ الْإِمَامُ التُّمُرْتَاشِيُّ اهـ قَالَ فِي الدُّرِّ الْمُنْتَقَى بَعْدَ نَقْلِهِ مَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ: وَأَقَرَّهُ فِي الْمِنَحِ وَغَيْرِهَا وَقَدَّمْنَاهُ فِي الطَّهَارَةِ وَالرَّضَاعِ أَنَّ الْمَذْهَبَ خِلَافُهُ اهـ (قَوْلُهُ وَفِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ إلَخْ) ذَكَرَهُ فِي النِّهَايَةِ عَنْ الذَّخِيرَةِ أَيْضًا (قَوْلُهُ نَفْيُ الْحُرْمَةِ عِنْدَ الْعِلْمِ بِالشِّفَاءِ) أَيْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَقُمْ غَيْرُهُ مَقَامَهُ كَمَا مَرَّ.

 

الفقه الشافعي

التعليقة للقاضي حسين على مختصر المزني – مكتبة نزار مصطفى الباز – ج = ٢، ص = ٩٣٣

قال عمران بن حصين: ما قام فينا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خطيبًا إلا كان يبحثنا على الصدقة، وينهانا عن المثلة.

والجواب هو إنما شربوا في وقت الحاجة والضرورة للتداوي، ونحن نبيح شرب البول للضرورة.

ويحتجون بما روى عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه عليه السلام قال: إن في أبوال الإبل وألبانها شفاء للذرب، وهو فساد المعدة، ويروى: فساد للذربة بطونهم فجعل فيها.

وقد قال عليه السلام: إن الله تعالى لم يجعل شفاءكم فيما حرم عليكم. فلو كانت حرامًا ما وقع بها الشفاء.

والجواب هو أنه أباح شربها عند الحاجة، ولا يصفها بالتحريم في وقت.

 

بحر المذهب للروياني – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٤، ص = ٢٥٨

ويجوز أن يتداوى بالبول إذا لم يجد دواء طاهراً، قد أذن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: “للعرنين أن يشربوا من ألبان الإبل وأبوالها بالمدينة لما اجتووها” وهكذا يحل له أن يأكل من لحوم الميتة للتداوي إذا لم يكن له دواء سواه ومنعه بعض أصحابنا من التداوي بالمحرمات احتجاجا بما روي عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أنه قال: “ما جعل الله شفاءكم فيم حرم عليكم ” وهذا القائل مخطئ بعد حديث العرنيين من وجهين: أحدهما: أن التداوي حال الضرورة، فصار بها مضطراً إلى أكل الميتة.

 

أسنى المطالب في شرح روض الطالب لزكريا الأنصاري – دار الكتاب الإسلامي – ج = ١، ص = ٥٧١

(وَشُرْبُ الْخَمْرِ) أَيْ تَنَاوُلُهَا (لِلْعَطَشِ وَلِلتَّدَاوِي حَرَامٌ) ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهَا لِعُمُومِ النَّهْيِ عَنْ شُرْبِهَا؛ وَلِأَنَّ بَعْضَهَا يَدْعُو إلَى بَعْضٍ؛ وَلِأَنَّ شُرْبَهَا لَا يَدْفَعُ الْعَطَشَ بَلْ يَزِيدُهُ، وَإِنْ سَكَّنَهُ فِي الْحَالِ وَلِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – لَمَّا «سُئِلَ عَنْ التَّدَاوِي بِالْخَمْرِ: إنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِدَوَاءٍ، وَلَكِنَّهُ دَاءٌ» رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ وَرَوَى ابْنُ حِبَّانَ فِي صَحِيحِهِ «أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ» وَالْمَعْنَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَلَبَ الْخَمْرَ مَنَافِعَهَا عِنْدَمَا حَرَّمَهَا، وَمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ مِنْ أَنَّ فِيهَا مَنَافِعَ إنَّمَا هُوَ قَبْلَ تَحْرِيمِهَا، وَإِنْ سَلِمَ بَقَاؤُهَا فَتَحْرِيمُهَا مَقْطُوعٌ بِهِ وَحُصُولُ الشِّفَاءِ بِهَا مَظْنُونٌ فَلَا يَقْوَى عَلَى إزَالَةِ الْمَقْطُوعِ، ثُمَّ مَحَلُّ ذَلِكَ إذَا لَمْ يَنْتَهِ بِهِ الْأَمْرُ إلَى الْهَلَاكِ، وَإِلَّا فَيَتَعَيَّنُ شُرْبُهَا كَمَا يَتَعَيَّنُ عَلَى الْمُضْطَرِّ أَكْلُ الْمَيْتَةِ وَمَحَلُّ مَنْعِ التَّدَاوِي بِهَا إذَا كَانَتْ خَالِصَةً بِخِلَافِ الْمَعْجُونِ بِهَا كَالتِّرْيَاقِ لِاسْتِهْلَاكِهَا فِيهِ وَكَالْخَمْرَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ سَائِرُ الْمُسْكِرَاتِ الْمَائِعَةِ وَخَرَجَ بِمَا قَالَهُ شُرْبُهَا لِإِسَاغَةِ لُقْمَةٍ فَيُبَاحُ…

 

أسنى المطالب في شرح روض الطالب لزكريا الأنصاري – دار الكتاب الإسلامي – ج = ٤، ص = ١٥٩

(وَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِنَجَسٍ) غَيْرِ مُسْكِرٍ (كَلَحْمِ حَيَّةٍ وَبَوْلٍ وَمَعْجُونِ خَمْرٍ) كَمَا مَرَّ فِي الْأَطْعِمَةِ (وَلَوْ) كَانَ التَّدَاوِي (لِتَعْجِيلِ شِفَاءٍ) كَمَا يَكُونُ لِرَجَائِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ يَجُوزُ (بِشَرْطِ إخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ) عَدْلٍ بِذَلِكَ (أَوْ مَعْرِفَةِ الْمُتَدَاوِي) بِهِ إنْ عُرِفَ (وَ) بِشَرْطِ (عَدَمِ مَا يَقُومُ بِهِ مَقَامَهُ) مِمَّا يَحْصُلُ بِهِ التَّدَاوِي مِنْ الطَّاهِرَاتِ.

 

تحفة المحتاج في شرح المنهاج وحواشي الشرواني والعبادي لابن حجر الهيتمي – دار إحياء التراث العربي – ج = ١٠، ص = ٢١٩-٢٢٠

(وَيَحْرُمُ اسْتِعْمَالُ آلَةٍ مِنْ شِعَارِ الشَّرْبَةِ كَطُنْبُورٍ) بِضَمِّ أَوَّلِهِ (وَعُودٍ) وَرَبَابٍ وَجِنّك وَسَنَطِيرُ وَكَمَنْجَةٍ (وَصَنْجٍ) بِفَتْحِ أَوَّلِهِ وَهُوَ صُفْرٌ يُجْعَلُ عَلَيْهِ أَوْ نَارٌ يُضْرَبُ بِهَا أَوْ قِطْعَتَانِ مِنْ صُفْرٍ تُضْرَبُ إحْدَاهُمَا بِالْأُخْرَى وَكِلَاهُمَا حَرَامٌ (وَمِزْمَارٍ عِرَاقِيٍّ) وَسَائِرِ أَنْوَاعِ الْأَوْتَارِ وَالْمَزَامِيرِ (وَاسْتِمَاعِهَا) ؛ لِأَنَّ اللَّذَّةَ الْحَاصِلَةَ مِنْهَا تَدْعُو إلَى فَسَادٍ كَشُرْبِ الْخَمْرِ لَا سِيَّمَا مَنْ قَرُبَ عَهْدُهُ بِهَا؛ وَلِأَنَّهَا شِعَارُ الْفَسَقَةِ، وَالتَّشَبُّهُ بِهِمْ حَرَامٌ وَخَرَجَ بِاسْتِمَاعِهَا سَمَاعُهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ قَصْدٍ فَلَا يَحْرُمُ، وَحِكَايَةُ وَجْهٍ بِحِلِّ الْعُودِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ يَنْفَعُ مِنْ بَعْضِ الْأَمْرَاضِ مَرْدُودَةٌ بِأَنَّ هَذَا لَمْ يَثْبُتْ عَنْ أَحَدٍ مِمَّنْ يُعْتَدُّ بِهِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ إنْ أُرِيدَ حِلُّهُ لِمَنْ بِهِ ذَلِكَ الْمَرَضُ وَلَمْ يَنْفَعْهُ غَيْرُهُ بِقَوْلِ طَبِيبَيْنِ عَدْلَيْنِ فَلَيْسَ وَجْهًا بَلْ هُوَ الْمَذْهَبُ كَالتَّدَاوِي بِنَجِسٍ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ وَعَلَى هَذَا يُحْمَلُ قَوْلُ الْحَلِيمِيِّ يُبَاحُ اسْتِمَاعُ آلَةِ اللَّهْوِ إذَا نَفَعَتْ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَيْ: لِمَنْ بِهِ ذَلِكَ الْمَرَضُ وَتَعَيَّنَ الشِّفَاءُ فِي سَمَاعِهِ.

حاشية الشرواني

(قَوْلُهُ: بِأَنَّ هَذَا إلَخْ) عِبَارَةُ النِّهَايَةِ نَعَمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرَ طَبِيبَانِ عَدْلَانِ بِأَنَّ الْمَرِيضَ لَا يَنْفَعُهُ لِمَرَضِهِ إلَّا الْعُودُ عُمِلَ بِخَبَرِهِمَا وَحَلَّ لَهُ اسْتِمَاعُهُ كَالتَّدَاوِي بِنَجِسٍ فِيهِ الْخَمْرُ وَعَلَى هَذَا يُحْمَلُ إلَخْ وَعِبَارَةُ الْمُغْنِي وَبُحِثَ جَوَازُ اسْتِمَاعِ الْمَرِيضِ إذَا شَهِدَ عَدْلَانِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الطِّبِّ بِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُنْجِعُ فِي مَرَضِهِ وَحَكَى ابْنُ عَبْدِ السَّلَامِ خِلَافًا لِلْعُلَمَاءِ فِي السَّمَاعِ بِالْمَلَاهِي وَبِالدُّفِّ وَالشَّبَّابَةِ وَقَالَ السُّبْكِيُّ: السَّمَاعُ عَلَى الصُّورَةِ الْمَعْهُودَةِ مُنْكَرٌ وَضَلَالَةٌ وَهُوَ مِنْ أَفْعَالِ الْجَهَلَةِ وَالشَّيَاطِينِ وَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ قُرْبَةٌ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ وَافْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ، وَمَنْ قَالَ أَنَّهُ يَزِيدُ فِي الذَّوْقِ فَهُوَ جَاهِلٌ أَوْ شَيْطَانٌ، وَمَنْ نَسَبَ السَّمَاعَ إلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – يُؤَدَّبُ أَدَبًا شَدِيدًا وَيَدْخُلُ فِي زُمْرَةِ الْكَاذِبِينَ عَلَيْهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – وَمَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيْهِ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنْ النَّارِ وَلَيْسَ هَذَا طَرِيقَةُ أَوْلِيَاءِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَحِزْبِهِ وَأَتْبَاعِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – بَلْ طَرِيقَةُ أَهْلِ اللَّهْوِ وَاللَّعِبِ وَالْبَاطِلِ وَيُنْكَرُ عَلَى هَذَا بِاللِّسَانِ وَالْيَدِ وَالْقَلْبِ وَمَنْ قَالَ مِنْ الْعُلَمَاءِ بِإِبَاحَةِ السَّمَاعِ فَذَاكَ حَيْثُ لَا يَجْتَمِعُ فِيهِ دُفٌّ وَشَبَّابَةٌ وَلَا رِجَالٌ وَنِسَاءٌ وَلَا مَنْ يَحْرُمُ النَّظَرُ إلَيْهِ. اهـ. .

(قَوْلُهُ: بِقَوْلِ طَبِيبَيْنِ إلَخْ) يَنْبَغِي أَوْ مَعْرِفَةُ نَفْسِهِ إنْ كَانَ عَارِفًا بِالطِّبِّ وَيَتَرَدَّدُ النَّظَرُ فِي إخْبَارِ الْوَاحِدِ وَلَوْ فَاسِقًا إذَا وَقَعَ فِي الْقَلْبِ صِدْقُهُ سَيِّدُ عُمَرَ. (قَوْلُهُ: بَلْ هُوَ لِلْمَذْهَبِ إلَخْ) أَيْ حِلِّ اسْتِمَاعِهِ اُنْظُرْ هَلْ يَحِلُّ لِنَحْوِ الطَّبِيبِ اسْتِعْمَالُهُ حِينَئِذٍ الْمُتَوَقِّفُ عَلَيْهِ اسْتِمَاعُ الْمَرِيضِ الْمُتَوَقِّفِ عَلَيْهِ شِفَاؤُهُ رَشِيدِيٌّ أَيْ وَالظَّاهِرُ الْحِلُّ.

 

نهاية المحتاج إلى شرح المنهاج للرملي – دار الفكر – ج = ٨، ص = ١٣-١٤

وَمَنْ غَصَّ) بِفَتْحِ أَوَّلِهِ الْمُعْجَمِ كَمَا بِخَطِّهِ وَيَجُوزُ ضَمُّهُ (بِلُقْمَةٍ) وَخَشَى هَلَاكُهُ مِنْهَا إنْ لَمْ تَنْزِلْ جَوْفَهُ، وَلَمْ يَتَمَكَّنْ مِنْ إخْرَاجِهَا (أَسَاغَهَا) حَتْمًا (بِخَمْرٍ) (إنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهَا) إنْقَاذًا لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ الْهَلَاكِ، وَظَاهِرٌ أَنَّ خُصُوصَ الْهَلَاكِ شَرْطُ الْوُجُوبِ لَا لِمُجَرَّدِ الْإِبَاحَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ حُصُولِ الْإِكْرَاهِ الْمُبِيحِ لَهَا بِنَحْوِ ضَرْبٍ شَدِيدٍ (وَالْأَصَحُّ تَحْرِيمُهَا) صَرْفًا (لِدَوَاءٍ) لِخَبَرِ «إنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَ أُمَّتِي فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْهَا» وَمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ مِنْ إثْبَاتِ مَنَافِعَ لَهَا فَهُوَ قَبْلَ تَحْرِيمِهَا أَمَّا مُسْتَهْلَكَةً مَعَ دَوَاءٍ آخَرَ فَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِهَا كَصَرْفِ بَقِيَّةِ النَّجَاسَاتِ إنْ عَرَفَ، أَوْ أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ عَدْلٌ بِنَفْعِهَا وَتَعْيِينِهَا بِأَنْ لَا يُغْنِي عَنْهَا طَاهِرٌ.

حاشية الشبراملسي

(قَوْلُهُ وَخَشَى هَلَاكَهُ) مَفْهُومُهُ أَنَّ خَشْيَةَ الْمَرَضِ مَثَلًا لَا تَجُوزُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ (قَوْلُهُ: أَسَاغَهَا حَتْمًا بِخَمْرٍ) وَإِذَا سَكِرَ مِمَّا شَرِبَهُ لِتَدَاوٍ أَوْ عَطَشٍ أَوْ إسَاغَةِ لُقْمَةٍ قَضَى مَا فَاتَهُ مِنْ الصَّلَوَاتِ كَمَا صَرَّحَ بِهِ الْإِرْشَادُ، وَلِأَنَّهُ تَعَمَّدَ الشُّرْبَ لِمَصْلَحَةِ نَفْسِهِ بِخِلَافِ الْجَاهِلِ كَمَا قَالَ فِي الرَّوْضِ، وَالْمَعْذُورُ مَنْ جَهِلَ التَّحْرِيمَ لِقُرْبِ عَهْدِهِ وَنَحْوِهِ، أَوْ جَهِلَ كَوْنَهُ خَمْرًا لَا يُحَدُّ وَلَا يَلْزَمُهُ قَضَاءُ الصَّلَوَاتِ مُدَّةَ السُّكْرِ بِخِلَافِ الْعَالِمِ اهـ سم عَلَى مَنْهَجٍ فِي أَثْنَاءِ كَلَامٍ، وَفِيهِ أَيْضًا فَائِدَةٌ بَحَثَ الزَّرْكَشِيُّ جَوَازَ أَكْلِ النَّبَاتِ الْمُحَرَّمِ عِنْدَ الْجُوعِ إذَا لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهُ وَمَثَّلَ بِالْحَشِيشَةِ قَالَ: لِأَنَّهَا لَا تُزِيلُ الْجُوعَ، وَفِيهِ نَظَرٌ يُعْرَفُ بِالنَّظَرِ فِي حَالِ أَهْلِهَا عِنْدَ أَكْلِهَا بِرّ اهـ.

وَفِي تَعْلِيلِ الْجَوَازِ بِقَوْلِهِ لِأَنَّهَا لَا تُزِيلُ الْجُوعَ إلَخْ نَظَرٌ؛ لِأَنَّ عَدَمَ إزَالَةِ الْجُوعِ إنَّمَا يَقْتَضِي عَدَمَ الْجَوَازِ، وَلَعَلَّهُ سَقَطَ مِنْ قَلَمِ النَّاسِخِ لَفْظَ عَدَمِ قَبْلَ جَوَازِ، وَفِيهِ أَيْضًا فَرْعٌ: شَمَّ صَغِيرٌ رَائِحَتَهُ الْخَمْرِ، وَخِيفَ عَلَيْهِ إذَا لَمْ يُسْقَ مِنْهَا هَلْ يَجُوزُ سَقْيُهُ مِنْهَا مَا يَدْفَعُ عَنْهُ الضَّرَرَ؟ قَالَ م ر: إنْ خِيفَ عَلَيْهِ الْهَلَاكُ أَوْ مَرَضٌ يُفْضِي إلَى الْهَلَاكِ جَازَ، وَإِلَّا لَمْ يَجُزْ وَإِنْ خِيفَ مَرَضٌ لَا يُفْضِي إلَى الْهَلَاكِ اهـ. أَقُولُ: لَوْ قِيلَ يَكْفِي مُجَرَّدُ مَرَضٍ تَحْصُلُ مَعَهُ مَشَقَّةٌ، وَلَا سِيَّمَا إنْ غَلَبَ امْتِدَادُهُ بِالطِّفْلِ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَعِيدًا (قَوْلُهُ: إنْقَاذًا لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ الْهَلَاكِ) أَيْ وَعَلَى هَذَا لَوْ مَاتَ بِشُرْبِهِ مَاتَ شَهِيدًا لِجَوَازِ تَنَاوُلِهِ لَهُ بَلْ وُجُوبِهِ، بِخِلَافِ مَا لَوْ شَرِبَهُ تَعَدِّيًا، وَغَصَّ مِنْهُ وَمَاتَ فَإِنَّهُ يَكُونُ عَاصِيًا لِتَعَدِّيهِ بِشُرْبِهِ (قَوْلُهُ: إنْ عُرِفَ) أَيْ بِالطِّبِّ، وَلَوْ كَانَ فَاسِقًا (قَوْلُهُ: بِأَنْ لَا يُغْنِي عَنْهَا طَاهِرٌ) أَيْ فَلَا يَجُوزُ اسْتِعْمَالُهَا مَعَ وُجُودِ الطَّاهِرِ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَسْرَعَ لِلشِّفَاءِ مِنْهُ، وَيُوَافِقُهُ مَا مَرَّ لِلشَّارِحِ فِي امْتِنَاعِ الْوَصْلِ بِعَظْمٍ نَجِسٍ هُوَ أَسْرَعُ انْجِبَارًا مِنْ الطَّاهِرِ، لَكِنْ فِي الرَّوْضِ وَشَرْحِهِ: وَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِنَجِسٍ غَيْرِ مُسْكِرٍ كَلَحْمِ حَيَّةٍ وَبَوْلٍ وَمَعْجُونِ خَمْرٍ كَمَا مَرَّ فِي الْأَطْعِمَةِ، وَلَوْ كَانَ التَّدَاوِي بِهِ لِتَعْجِيلِ شِفَاءٍ كَمَا يَكُونُ لِرَجَائِهِ، وَأَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ بِشَرْطِ إخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ عَدْلٍ بِذَلِكَ أَوْ مَعْرِفَةِ الْمُتَدَاوِي بِهِ إنْ عَرَفَ، وَيُشْتَرَطُ عَدَمُ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ مِمَّا يَحْصُلُ بِهِ التَّدَاوِي مِنْ الطَّاهِرَاتِ اهـ.

وَلَا يُنَافِي مَا ذَكَرَهُ الشَّارِحُ هُنَا قَوْلُ الرَّوْضِ وَلَوْ لِتَعْجِيلِ شِفَاءٍ، فَإِنَّ مَا فِي الرَّوْضِ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى مَا إذَا حَصَلَ الشِّفَاءُ بِالْخَمْرِ الْمَعْجُونِ فِي أُسْبُوعٍ مَثَلًا، وَإِذَا لَمْ يَتَدَاوَ أَصْلًا لَمْ يَحْصُلْ الشِّفَاءُ إلَّا فِي عَشَرَةٍ، وَهُوَ مَفْرُوضٌ فِيمَا إذَا لَمْ يُوجَدْ طَاهِرٌ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ.

 

نهاية المحتاج إلى شرح المنهاج للرملي – دار الفكر – ج = ٨، ص = ٢٩٧

نَعَمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرَ طَبِيبَانِ عَدْلَانِ بِأَنَّ الْمَرِيضَ لَا يَنْفَعُهُ لِمَرَضِهِ إلَّا الْعُودُ عُمِلَ بِخَبَرِهِمَا وَحَلَّ لَهُ اسْتِمَاعُهُ كَالتَّدَاوِي بِنَجِسٍ فِيهِ الْخَمْرُ، وَعَلَى هَذَا يُحْمَلُ قَوْلُ الْحَلِيمِيِّ يُبَاحُ اسْتِمَاعُ آلَةِ اللَّهْوِ إذَا نَفَعَتْ مَنْ مَرِضَ: أَيْ لِمَنْ بِهِ ذَلِكَ الْمَرَضُ وَتَعَيَّنَ الشِّفَاءُ فِي سَمَاعِهِ.

 

حاشية الرشيدي

قَوْلُهُ: وَحَلَّ لَهُ اسْتِمَاعُهُ) اُنْظُرْ هَلْ يَحِلُّ لِنَحْوِ الطَّبِيبِ اسْتِعْمَالُهُ حِينَئِذٍ الْمُتَوَقِّفُ عَلَيْهِ اسْتِمَاعُ الْمَرِيضِ الْمُتَوَقِّفُ عَلَيْهِ شِفَاؤُهُ.

 

تحفة الحبيب على شرح الخطيب حاشية البجيرمي على الخطيب – دار الفكر – ج = ٤، ص = ١٨٩

(وَهَذِهِ) أَيْ الْإِسَاغَةُ رُخْصَةٌ وَاجِبَةٌ قَالَ الشَّيْخُ م ر: وَظَاهِرٌ أَنَّ خُصُوصَ الْهَلَاكِ شَرْطٌ لِلْوُجُوبِ لَا لِمُجَرَّدِ الْإِبَاحَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ حُصُولِ الْإِكْرَاهِ الْمُبِيحِ لَهَا، بِنَحْوِ ضَرْبٍ شَدِيدٍ. اهـ. مَرْحُومِيٌّ.

 

تحفة الحبيب على شرح الخطيب حاشية البجيرمي على الخطيب – دار الفكر – ج = ٤، ص = ١٩١

فَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِهِ عِنْدَ فَقْدِ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ مِمَّا يَحْصُلُ بِهِ التَّدَاوِي مِنْ الطَّاهِرَاتِ كَالتَّدَاوِي بِنَجِسٍ كَلَحْمِ حَيَّةٍ وَبَوْلٍ. وَلَوْ كَانَ التَّدَاوِي بِذَلِكَ لِتَعْجِيلِ شِفَاءٍ بِشَرْطِ إخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ عَدْلٍ بِذَلِكَ أَوْ مَعْرِفَتِهِ لِلتَّدَاوِي بِهِ، ، وَالنَّدُّ بِالْفَتْحِ الْمَعْجُونُ بِخَمْرٍ لَا يَجُوزُ بَيْعُهُ لِنَجَاسَتِهِ. وَيَجُوزُ تَنَاوُلُ مَا يُزِيلُ الْعَقْلَ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْأَشْرِبَةِ لِقَطْعِ عُضْوٍ مُتَآكِلٍ، أَمَّا الْأَشْرِبَةُ فَلَا يَجُوزُ تَعَاطِيهَا لِذَلِكَ.

حاشية البجيرمي

قَوْلُهُ: (هَذَا إذَا تَدَاوَى بِصِرْفِهَا) لَمْ تَظْهَرْ هَذِهِ الْمُقَابَلَةُ، لِأَنَّ حُكْمَ التَّدَاوِي بِهَا صِرْفَةً كَحُكْمِهِ مَخْلُوطَةً وَهُوَ إنْ وَجَدَ غَيْرَهُ حُرِّمَ وَلَا حَدَّ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهُ لَا حُرْمَةَ وَلَا حَدَّ فِي كُلٍّ مِنْهُمَا. وَظَاهِرُ الشَّارِحِ أَنَّ التَّدَاوِيَ بِهَا صِرْفَةً حَرَامٌ مُطْلَقًا وَلَوْ مَعَ عَدَمِ وُجُودِ غَيْرِهَا وَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ كَذَلِكَ، وَأَمَّا حُكْمُ الْعَطَشِ فَيُحَرَّمُ مُطْلَقًا وَلَوْ مَعَ عَدَمِ وُجُودِ غَيْرِهَا، إلَّا إنْ أَدَّى عَدَمُ الشُّرْبِ إلَى تَلَفِ نَفْسٍ، أَوْ عُضْوٍ أَوْ مَنْفَعَةٍ فَيَجِبُ إلَّا أَنْ يُجَابَ عَنْ الشَّارِحِ بِأَنَّ بَيْنَ الصِّرْفِ وَالْمَخْلُوطِ فَرْقًا مِنْ جِهَةٍ أُخْرَى وَهِيَ أَنَّهُ إذَا كَانَتْ صِرْفَةً وَوَجَدَ غَيْرَهَا يُحَرَّمُ وَلَا حَدَّ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ وَقِيلَ: يُحَدُّ، وَأَمَّا إذَا كَانَتْ مَخْلُوطَةً وَوَجَدَ غَيْرَهَا وَتَدَاوَى بِالْمَخْلُوطِ فَلَا حَدَّ اتِّفَاقًا، وَأَيْضًا إذَا وَجَدَ غَيْرَهَا وَهِيَ صِرْفَةٌ تَكُونُ الْحُرْمَةُ حُرْمَةَ الْخَمْرِ، وَإِذَا كَانَتْ مَخْلُوطَةً وَوَجَدَ غَيْرَهَا تَكُونُ الْحُرْمَةُ حُرْمَةَ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ وَهِيَ أَقَلُّ مِنْ حُرْمَةِ الْخَمْرِ وَقَوْلُ الشَّارِحِ: بَعْدَ مَسْأَلَةِ إسَاغَةِ اللُّقْمَةِ بِخِلَافِ الدَّوَاءِ بِهَا يَقْتَضِي أَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ مُطْلَقًا أَيْ وَجَدَ غَيْرَهَا أَوْ لَا. وَيُجَابُ بِأَنَّهُ رَاجِعٌ لِقَوْلِهِ: وَالسَّلَامَةُ بِذَلِكَ قَطْعِيَّةٌ أَيْ بِخِلَافِ الدَّوَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ مَظْنُونٌ. قَوْلُهُ: (أَمَّا التِّرْيَاقُ إلَخْ) لَيْسَ مُكَرَّرًا مَعَ قَوْلِهِ سَابِقًا وَلَا مَعْجُونٍ هُوَ فِيهِ، لِأَنَّ مَا ذُكِرَ هُنَا فِي مَقَامِ جَوَازِ التَّدَاوِي بِهِ وَمَا مَرَّ فِي بَيَانِ أَنَّهُ لَا يُحَدُّ بِهِ فَانْدَفَعَ مَا فِي الْحَاشِيَةِ كَمَا قَرَّرَهُ شَيْخُنَا. وَيُقَالُ: فِيهِ دَرَّاقٌ وَطَرَّاقٌ فَفِيهِ ثَلَاثُ لُغَاتٍ وَأَوَّلُهَا مَكْسُورٌ أَوْ مَضْمُومٌ فَالْمَجْمُوعُ سِتَّةٌ قَوْلُهُ: (وَلَوْ كَانَ التَّدَاوِي إلَخْ) الْغَايَةُ لِلرَّدِّ عَلَى مَنْ يَمْنَعُ التَّدَاوِيَ لِلتَّعْجِيلِ وَهِيَ غَايَةٌ فِي قَوْلِهِ: يَجُوزُ وَعِبَارَةُ زي: وَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِصِرْفِ النَّجِسِ إلَّا الْمُسْكِرَ وَلَوْ بِتَعْجِيلِ شِفَاءٍ بِشَرْطِ إخْبَارِ عَدْلٍ عَارِفٍ، أَوْ مَعْرِفَةِ نَفْسِهِ اهـ.

قَوْلُهُ: (بِذَلِكَ) أَيْ بِالتِّرْيَاقِ وَنَحْوِهِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَعْجُونٍ بِالْخَمْرِ قَوْلُهُ: (وَالنَّدُّ) نَوْعٌ مِنْ الطِّيبِ قَوْلُهُ: (لَا يَجُوزُ بَيْعُهُ) كَذَا فِي الرَّوْضِ قَالَ شَارِحُهُ: قَالَ فِي الْأَصْلِ وَكَانَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَجُوزَ كَالثَّوْبِ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ لِإِمْكَانِ طُهْرِهِ بِنَقْعِهِ فِي الْمَاءِ.

قَوْلُهُ: (وَيَجُوزُ تَنَاوُلُ مَا يُزِيلُ الْعَقْلَ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْأَشْرِبَةِ) : بِنَحْوِ بَنْجٍ لِقَطْعِ عُضْوٍ اهـ قَالَ ع ش عَلَى م ر: وَهَلْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا يَقَعُ لِمَنْ أَخَذَ بِكْرًا وَتَعَذَّرَ عَلَيْهِ افْتِضَاضُهَا إلَّا بِإِطْعَامِهَا مَا يُغَيِّبُ عَقْلَهَا مِنْ نَحْوِ بَنْجٍ، أَوْ حَشِيشٍ فِيهِ نَظَرٌ وَلَا يَبْعُدُ أَنَّهُ مِثْلُهُ، لِأَنَّهُ وَسِيلَةٌ إلَى تَمْكِينِ الزَّوْجِ مِنْ الْوُصُولِ إلَى حَقِّهِ، وَمَعْلُومٌ أَنَّ مَحَلَّ جَوَازِ وَطْئِهَا مَا لَمْ يَحْصُلْ بِهِ لَهَا أَذًى لَا يَحْتَمِلُ مِثْلَهُ فِي إزَالَةِ الْبَكَارَةِ. اهـ.

 

المجموع شرح المهذب للننوي – دار الفكر – ج = ٩، ص = ٥٠-٥١

)فَرْعٌ(

قَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ: وَإِذَا اُضْطُرَّ وَوَجَدَ مَنْ يُطْعِمُهُ وَيَسْقِيهِ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ الِامْتِنَاعُ إلَّا فِي حَالَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَهِيَ إذَا خَافَ أَنْ يُطْعِمَهُ أَوْ يَسْقِيَهُ مَسْمُومًا فَلَوْ تَرَكَهُ وَأَكَلَ الْمَيْتَةَ فَلَهُ تركه وأكل الميتة والله أعلم * (الثالثة عشر) إذَا اُضْطُرَّ إلَى شُرْبِ الدَّمِ أَوْ الْبَوْلِ أَوْ غَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ النَّجَاسَاتِ الْمَائِعَةِ غَيْرِ الْمُسْكِرِ جَازَ لَهُ شُرْبُهُ بِلَا خِلَافٍ وَإِنْ اُضْطُرَّ وَهُنَاكَ خَمْرٌ وَبَوْلٌ لَزِمَهُ شُرْبُ الْبَوْلِ وَلَمْ يَجُزْ شُرْبُ الْخَمْرِ بِلَا خِلَافٍ لِمَا ذَكَرَهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ (وَأَمَّا) التَّدَاوِي بِالنَّجَاسَاتِ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ سَوَاءٌ فِيهِ جَمِيعُ النَّجَاسَاتِ غَيْرُ الْمُسْكِرِ هَذَا هُوَ الْمَذْهَبُ وَالْمَنْصُوصُ وَبِهِ قَطَعَ الْجُمْهُورُ وَفِيهِ وَجْهٌ أَنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ لِحَدِيثِ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ الْمَذْكُورِ فِي الْكِتَابِ (وَوَجْهٌ ثَالِثٌ) أَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ بِأَبْوَالِ الْإِبِلِ خَاصَّةً لِوُرُودِ النَّصِّ فِيهَا وَلَا يَجُوزُ بِغَيْرِهَا حَكَاهُمَا الرَّافِعِيُّ وَهُمَا شَاذَّانِ وَالصَّوَابُ الْجَوَازُ مُطْلَقًا لِحَدِيثِ أَنَسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ… * قَالَ أَصْحَابُنَا وَإِنَّمَا يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ إذَا كَانَ الْمُتَدَاوِي عَارِفًا بِالطِّبِّ يَعْرِفُ أَنَّهُ لَا يَقُومُ غَيْرُ هَذَا مَقَامَهُ أَوْ أَخْبَرَهُ بِذَلِكَ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ عَدْلٌ وَيَكْفِي طَبِيبٌ وَاحِدٌ صَرَّحَ بِهِ الْبَغَوِيّ وَغَيْرُهُ فَلَوْ قَالَ الطَّبِيبُ يَتَعَجَّلُ لَكَ بِهِ الشِّفَاءُ وَإِنْ تَرَكْتَهُ تَأَخَّرَ فَفِي إبَاحَتِهِ وَجْهَانِ حَكَاهُمَا الْبَغَوِيّ وَلَمْ يُرَجِّحْ وَاحِدًا مِنْهُمَا وَقِيَاسُ نَظِيرِهِ فِي التَّيَمُّمِ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْأَصَحُّ جَوَازَهُ (أَمَّا) الْخَمْرُ وَالنَّبِيذُ وَغَيْرُهُمَا مِنْ الْمُسْكِرِ فَهَلْ يَجُوزُ شُرْبُهَا لِلتَّدَاوِي أَوْ الْعَطَشِ فِيهِ أَرْبَعَةُ أَوْجُهٍ مَشْهُورَةٌ (الصَّحِيحُ) عِنْدَ جُمْهُورِ الْأَصْحَابِ لَا يَجُوزُ فِيهِمَا

(وَالثَّانِي) يَجُوزُ (وَالثَّالِثُ) يَجُوزُ لِلتَّدَاوِي دُونَ الْعَطَشِ (وَالرَّابِعُ) عَكْسُهُ قَالَ الرَّافِعِيُّ الصَّحِيحُ عِنْدَ الْجُمْهُورِ لَا يَجُوزُ لِوَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا وَدَلِيلُهُ حَدِيثُ وَائِلُ بْنُ حُجْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ.

 

الفقه المالكي

أسهل المدارك «شرح إرشاد السالك في مذهب إمام الأئمة مالك» للكشناوي – دار الفكر – ج = ١، ص = ٤٧

وقول المصنف: وكلها نجسة، يعني أن الميتات والمسكرات المذكورات يحرم تعاطيها أكلا وشربا وادهانا، ووقع الخلاف في التداوي بالنجاسة كالخمر، والمعتمد في المذهب الحرمة، لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام: ” إن الله عز وجل أنزل الداء والدواء، وجعل لكل داء دواء، فتداووا، ولا تداووا بحرام ” رواه أبو داود. وفي رواية ” إن الله لم يجعل شفاء أمتي فيما حرم عليها ” اهـ.

 

أسهل المدارك «شرح إرشاد السالك في مذهب إمام الأئمة مالك» للكشناوي – دار الفكر – ج = ٢، ص = ٦٤-٦٥

قال رحمه الله تعالى: ” ولا يتداوى بنجس شرباً وفي الطلاء قولان، بخلاف إساغة الغصة بخمر ونحوها ” المشهور من القولين عدم الجواز. قال عليه الصلاة والسلام: ” إن الله عز وجل أنزل الداء والدواء، وجعل لكل داء دواء ولا تتداووا بحرام ” اهـ قال في الرسالة: ولا يتعالج بالخمر، ولا بالنجاسة، ولا بما فيه ميتة، ولا بشيء مما حرم الله سبحانه وتعالى. قال النفراوي: أي يحرم التداوي به. قال خليل: لا دواء ولو طلاء لخبر ” إن الله لم يجعل شفاء أمتي فيما حرم عليها ” إلا ما قام الدليل عليه مثل أن يدفع الخمر غصة أو عطشاً على قول، وينبغي إلا أن يتعين طريقاً للدواء فيجوز لأنه مثل الغصة، وأيضا كما لا يجوز التداوي بالخمر كذلك لا يجوز بعين النجاسة غير الخمر، ولا بما فيه ميتة ولا بشيء مما حرم الله تعالى. وظاهر الحديث عموم حرمة التداوي بالنجس ولو في ظاهر الجسد ولو غير خمر. وقال الصاوي وأما هو فيحرم التلطيخ به اتفاقاً. فتحصل أن عين النجاسة والخمر لا يتداوى بهما ولو على ظاهر الجسد، إلا لحم الميتة للمضطر، وإلا الخمر لإساغة الغصة فقط، قال الصاوي: فلا يجوز التداوي أي بالخمر إلا ما استثني لضرورة، إذ الضرورات تبيح المحظورات اهـ. قال ابن جزي: ولا يحل التداوي بها في المشهور. وقيل يجوز وفاقاً للشافعي اهـ.

 

شرح الزرقاني على مختصر خليل وحاشية البناني – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٨، ص = ١٩٩

(لا دواء) فلا يجوز ولو فعله لخوف الموت ويحد أن تداوى به شربًا قال تت في شرحه على الإرشاد ابن العربي تردّد علماؤنا في دواء فيه خمر والصحيح المنع والحد اهـ.

 

التوضيح في شرح مختصر ابن الحاجب لضساء الدين الجندي – مركز نجيبويه للمخطوطات وخدمة التراث – ج = ٨، ص = ٣٣١

وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنُّهُ لا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بمَا فِيهِ الْخَمْرُ وَلا بنَجِسٍ. الباجي وغيره: إنما هذا الخلاف في ظاهر الجسد؛ يعني: ويمنع في الباطن اتفاقاً، وما عبر عنه المصنف بالصحيح عبر عنه ابن شاس بالمشهور.

ابن عبد السلام: وأجاز مالك لمن عثر أن يبول على عثرته، وفي مسلم: أنه عليه الصلاة والسلام سئل عن جعلها في الدواء، فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم:”إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِدَوَاءٍ وَلَكِنَّهُ دَاءٌ”، وكره مالك أن يداوي بها دبر الدواب.

 

مواهب الجليل في شرح مختصر خليل للحطاب – دار الفكر – ج = ١، ص = ١١٩-١٢٠

أَمَّا أَكْلُهُ وَالتَّدَاوِي بِهِ فِي بَاطِنِ الْجَسَدِ فَالِاتِّفَاقُ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِهِ كَمَا نَقَلَهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ فِي التَّوْضِيحِ فِي كِتَابِ الشُّرْبِ عَنْ الْبَاجِيِّ وَغَيْرِهِ وَصَرَّحَ بِذَلِكَ ابْنُ نَاجِي وَالْجُزُولِيِّ وَغَيْرُهُمَا لَكِنْ حَكَى الزَّنَاتِيُّ فِيمَا إذَا اُسْتُهْلِكَتْ الْخَمْرُ فِي دَوَاءٍ بِالطَّبْخِ أَوْ بِالتَّرْكِيبِ حَتَّى يَذْهَبَ عَيْنُهَا وَيَمُوتَ رِيحُهَا وَقَضَتْ التَّجْرِبَةُ بِإِنْجَاحِ ذَلِكَ الدَّوَاءِ قَوْلَيْنِ بِالْجَوَازِ وَالْمَنْعِ قَالَ: وَإِنْ لَمْ تَقْضِ التَّجْرِبَةُ بِإِنْجَاحِهِ لَمْ يَجُزْ بِاتِّفَاقٍ انْتَهَى.

(قُلْتُ) وَالظَّاهِرُ الْمَنْعُ مُطْلَقًا، وَأَمَّا التَّدَاوِي بِالْخَمْرِ وَالنَّجَسِ فِي ظَاهِرِ الْجَسَدِ فَحَكَى الْمُصَنِّفُ فِي التَّوْضِيحِ وَغَيْرِهِ فِيهِ قَوْلَيْنِ الْمَشْهُورُ مِنْهُمَا أَنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ وَقَالَ ابْنُ نَاجِي – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – فِي شَرْحِ الرِّسَالَةِ وَأَفْتَى غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ شُيُوخِنَا بِحُرْمَتِهِ قَالَ: وَمِنْ هَذَا الْمَعْنَى غَسْلُ الْقُرْحَةِ بِالْبَوْلِ إذَا أَنْقَاهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ بِالْمَاءِ وَقَالَ ابْنُ مَرْزُوقٍ هَذَا مُقْتَضَى إطْلَاقِ الْمُصَنِّفِ وَهُوَ الْمَشْهُورُ وَقَالَ ابْنُ الْحَاجِبِ فِي بَابِ الشُّرْبِ وَالصَّحِيحُ لَا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِمَا فِيهِ خَمْرٌ وَلَا بِنَجِسٍ قَالَ فِي التَّوْضِيحِ الْبَاجِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ إنَّمَا هَذَا الْخِلَافُ فِي ظَاهِرِ الْجَسَدِ يَعْنِي وَيُمْنَعُ فِي الْبَاطِنِ اتِّفَاقًا وَمَا عَبَّرَ عَنْهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ بِالصَّحِيحِ عَبَّرَ عَنْهُ ابْنُ شَاسٍ بِالْمَشْهُورِ وَقَالَ ابْن عَبْدِ السَّلَامِ وَأَجَازَ مَالِكٌ لِمَنْ عَثَرَ أَنْ يَبُولَ عَلَى عَثْرَتِهِ وَسَيَأْتِي لِلْمُصَنَّفِ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – فِي بَابِ الشُّرْبِ أَنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِالْخَمْرِ وَلَوْ طِلَاءً وَقَالَ فِي الْمُقَدِّمَاتِ لَا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِشُرْبِ الْخَمْرِ وَلَا بِشُرْبِ شَيْءٍ مِنْ النَّجَاسَاتِ فَأَمَّا التَّدَاوِي بِذَلِكَ مِنْ غَيْرِ شُرْبٍ فَذَلِكَ مَكْرُوهٌ بِالْخَمْرِ وَمُبَاحٌ بِالنَّجَاسَاتِ وَلَمْ يَحْكِ فِي ذَلِكَ خِلَافًا وَلَهُ نَحْوُ ذَلِكَ فِي سَمَاعِ أَشْهَبَ مِنْ كِتَابِ الْجَامِعِ فِي شَرْحِ مَسْأَلَةِ غَسْلِ الْقُرْحَةِ بِالْبَوْلِ، أَوْ بِالْخَمْرِ

قَالَ فِيهَا مَالِكٌ إذَا أَنْقَى ذَلِكَ بِالْمَاءِ بَعْدُ فَنَعَمْ، وَإِنِّي لَأَكْرَهُ الْخَمْرَ فِي كُلِّ شَيْءٍ – الدَّوَاءِ وَغَيْرِهِ تَعَمُّدًا إلَى مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ – تَعَالَى – فِي كِتَابِهِ وَذَكَرَ نَجَاسَتَهُ – يُتَدَاوَى بِهِ.

 

شرح مختصر خليل للخرشي – دار الفكر – ج = ٣، ص = ٢٩

حاشية العدوي

وَالْفَرْقُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ التَّدَاوِي أَنَّ التَّدَاوِيَ لَا يَتَيَقَّنُ الْبُرْءُ مِنْهُ وَيَتَيَقَّنُ الْبُرْءُ مِنْ الْغُصَّةِ.

 

شرح مختصر خليل للخرشي – دار الفكر – ج = ٥، ص = ٩

وَالْمُرَادُ بِالسُّكْرِ الْحَرَامُ وَهُوَ الْخَمْرُ أَوْ غَيْرُهُ حَيْثُ كَانَ مُتَعَدِّيًا عَالِمًا أَمَّا إنْ شَرِبَهُ غَيْرَ عَالِمٍ أَوْ لِلتَّدَاوِي فَكَالْمَجْنُونِ.

حاشية العدوي

(قَوْلُهُ وَالْمُرَادُ بِالسُّكْرِ الْحَرَامُ) الْمُرَادُ بِهِ مُطْلَقُ الْحَرَامِ الْمُغَيِّبِ لِلْعَقْلِ حَتَّى يَشْمَلَ الْمُفْسِدَ وَالْمُرْقِدَ لَا خُصُوصَ ذُهُولِ الْعُقُولِ مَعَ نَشْأَةٍ وَطَرَبٍ (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ غَيْرُهُ) كَلَبَنٍ حَامِضٍ وَكَذَا الْمُرَقِّدُ وَالْمُخَدِّرُ وَقَوْلُهُ حَيْثُ كَانَ رَاجِعٌ لِلْخَمْرِ وَغَيْرِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ عَالِمًا) حَالٌ لَازِمَةٌ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُتَعَدِّيَ عَالِمٌ وَقَوْلُهُ أَوْ لِلتَّدَاوِي أَيْ فِي غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ، وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّهُ قَدْ ذَكَرَ الْمُنَاوِيُّ مَا نَصُّهُ وَالْأَصَحُّ عِنْدَ الشَّافِعِيَّةِ حِلُّ التَّدَاوِي بِكُلِّ نَجَسٍ إلَّا الْخَمْرَ وَالْخَبَرُ مَوْضِعُهُ إذَا وُجِدَ دَوَاءٌ طَاهِرٌ يُغْنِي عَنْ النَّجَسِ جَمْعًا بَيْنَ الْأَخْبَارِ انْتَهَى وَالْخَبَرُ هُوَ قَوْلُهُ فِي حَدِيثِ الْجَامِعِ «وَلَا تُدَاوِي بِحَرَامٍ» فَإِذَا عَلِمْت ذَلِكَ فَقَوْلُ الشَّارِحِ أَوْ لِلتَّدَاوِي أَيْ مُقَلِّدًا مَنْ يَرَى الْجَوَازَ لِلتَّدَاوِي.

 

حاشية العدوي على كفاية الطالب الرباني – دار الفكر – ج = ٢، ص = ٤٢٢

حاشية العدوي

قَوْلُهُ: شُرْبَ الْخَمْرِ. . . إلَخْ] أَيْ طَوْعًا بِلَا عُذْرٍ، وَوَقَعَ خِلَافٌ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْخَمْرِ وَالْمُعْتَمَدُ الْحُرْمَةُ.

قَالَ فِي التَّحْقِيقِ: وَالْإِجْمَاعُ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِ عَصِيرِ الْعِنَبِ الَّذِي لَمْ تَمَسَّهُ النَّارُ قِيلَ: وَهِيَ مُشْتَقَّةٌ مِنْ التَّخَمُّرِ وَهِيَ التَّغْطِيَةُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا تُغَطِّي الْعَقْلَ وَهِيَ نَجِسَةُ الْعَيْنِ وَلَا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِهَا وَلَا بِالنَّجَاسَةِ مُطْلَقًا لَا ظَاهِرًا وَلَا بَاطِنًا عَلَى الْمَعْرُوفِ مِنْ الْمَذْهَبِ. [قَوْلُهُ: قَلِيلِهَا. . . إلَخْ] أَتَى بِذَلِكَ رَدًّا لِمَنْ يَقُولُ إنَّمَا يَحْرُمُ كَثِيرُهَا.

قَالَ ابْنُ الْفَاكِهَانِيِّ فِي شَرْحِ عُمْدَةِ الْأَحْكَامِ: وَسَمِعْت بَعْضَ شُيُوخِنَا يَقُولُ حَتَّى لَوْ أَخَذَ مِنْهُ بِرَأْسِ إبْرَةٍ عَلَى لِسَانِهِ لَحُدَّ اهـ.

 

الثمر الداني شرح رسالة ابن أبي زيد القيرواني لصالح الآبي الأزهري – المكتبة الثقافية  – ص = ٧١١

“ولا يتعالج” أي لا يجوز التعالج “بالخمر” في باطن الجسم وظاهره “ولا بالنجاسة” غيره “ولا بما فيه ميتة” أي ولا بشيء فيه جزء من الميتة وهذا وإن كان داخلا فيما قبله إلا أنه لما كانت نجاسته عرضية ربما يتوهم جواز التداوي بما هي فيه “ولا بشيء مما حرم الله سبحانه وتعالى” وحينئذ لا يجوز التداوي في الحكة بلبس الحرير خلافا لبعض.

 

الشرح الكبير للشيخ الدردير وحاشية الدسوقي – دار الفكر – ج = ٤، ص = ٣٥٣

حاشية الدسوقي

(قَوْلُهُ: لَا يَجُوزُ اسْتِعْمَالُ الْخَمْرِ لِأَجْلِ دَوَاءٍ وَلَوْ لِخَوْفِ الْمَوْتِ) أَيْ فَإِنْ وَقَعَ وَنَزَلَ وَتَدَاوَى بِهِ شُرْبًا حُدَّ ابْنُ الْعَرَبِيِّ تَرَدَّدَ عُلَمَاؤُنَا فِي دَوَاءٍ فِيهِ خَمْرٌ وَالصَّحِيحُ الْمَنْعُ وَالْحَدُّ اه

 

الفواكه الدواني على رسالة ابن أبي زيد القيرواني للنفراوي – دار الفكر – ج = ٢، ص = ٢٨٧

الفواكه الدواني

وَوَقَعَ الْخِلَافُ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِهَا وَالْمُعْتَمَدُ عِنْدَنَا الْحُرْمَةُ لِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «إنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْزَلَ الدَّاءَ وَالدَّوَاءَ وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً وَلَا تَتَدَاوَوْا بِحَرَامٍ»

 

الفقه الحنبلي

الشرح الكبير على متن المقنع لابن قدامة – دار الكتاب العربي – ج = ١١، ص = ١٠٨

(فصل) والترياق محرم وهو دواء يعالج به من السم يجعل فيه لحوم الحيات ويعجن بالخمر لا يحل أكله ولا شربه لأن الخمر ولحوم الحيات حرام، وممن كرهه الحسن وابن سيرين ورخص فيه الشعبي ومالك ويقتضيه مذهب الشافعي لإباحته التداوي ببعض المحرمات.

ولنا أن لحم الحية حرام على ما ذكرنا فيما مضى وكذلك الخمر لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ” إن الله لم يجعل شفاء أمتي فيما حرم عليها “.

(فصل) ولا يجوز التداوي بشئ محرم ولا بشئ فيه محرم مثل ألبان الأتن ولحم شئ من المحرمات ولا شرب الخمر للتداوي لما ذكرنا من الخبر، ولأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذكر له النبيذ يصنع للدواء فقال ” إنه ليس بدواء ولكنه داء ”

 

المبدع في شرح المقنع لابن مفلح – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٧، ص = ٤١٧

(وَلَا يَحِلُّ شُرْبُهُ لِلَذَّةٍ) لِعُمُومِ «مَا أَسْكَرَ كَثِيرُهُ فَقَلِيلُهُ حَرَامٌ» (وَلَا لِلتَّدَاوِي) لِمَا رَوَى وَائِلُ بْنُ حُجْرٍ: «أَنَّ طَارِقَ بْنَ سُوَيْدٍ الْجُعْفِيَّ سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – عَنِ الْخَمْرِ فَنَهَاهُ، أَوْ كَرِهَ لَهُ أَنْ يَصْنَعَهَا، فَقَالَ: إِنَّمَا أَصْنَعُهَا لِلدَّوَاءِ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِدَوَاءٍ، وَلَكِنَّهُ دَاءٌ» . رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ» . رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ. وَرَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ مِنْ حَدِيثِ حَسَّانِ بْنِ مُخَارِقٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ مَرْفُوعًا، وَصَحَّحَهُ ابْنُ حِبَّانَ، وَلِأَنَّهُ يَحْرُمُ لِعَيْنِهِ فَلَمْ يَحِلَّ شُرْبُهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي، كَلَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ (وَلَا لِعَطَشٍ) لِأَنَّهُ لَا يُذْهِبُهُ وَلَا يُزِيلُهُ وَلَا يَدْفَعُ مَحْذُورَهُ، فَوَجَبَ بَقَاؤُهُ عَمَلًا بِالْأَدِلَّةِ الْمُقْتَضِيَةِ لِذَلِكَ مَعَ سَلَامَتِهِ مِنَ الْمُعَارِضِ (وَلَا لِغَيْرِهِ إِلَّا لِدَفْعِ لُقْمَةٍ غُصَّ بِهَا) فَيَجُوزُ تَنَاوُلُهُ إِذَا لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهُ وَخَافَ التَّلَفَ، لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: {فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلا عَادٍ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ} [البقرة: 173] وَلِأَنَّ حِفْظَ النَّفْسِ مَطْلُوبٌ، بِدَلِيلِ أَنَّهُ تُبَاحُ الْمَيْتَةُ عِنْدَ الِاضْطِرَارِ إِلَيْهَا، وَهُوَ مَوْجُودٌ هُنَا، فَوَجَبَ جَوَازُهُ تَحْصِيلًا لِحِفْظِ النَّفْسِ الْمَطْلُوبِ.

 

الممتع في شرح المقنع للتنوخي بتحقيق ابن دهيش – مكتبة الأسدي – ج = ٤، ص = ٢٧١

وأما كونه لا يحل شربه للتداوي؛ فلما روى طارق بن شهاب: «أنه سأل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن الخمر وقال (4): إنما أصنعُها (5) للدواءِ. فقال: إنه ليسَ بدواء ولكنه دَاء» (6). وعن مخارق «أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم دخلَ على أم سلمة ونبذت نبيذاً في جر فخرجَ النبيذ يهدر. فقال: ما هذا؟ فقالت: فلانة اشتكتْ بطنها فنعت لها. فدفعه برجله فكسرهُ وقال: إن الله لم يجعلْ فيما حرم عليكمْ شفاء» (7). رواهما الإمام أحمد.

ولأن الخمر محرم لعينه. فلم يجز شربه للتداوي؛ كلحم الخنزير.

وأما كونه لا يحل شربه لعطش؛ فلأنه لا يذهبه ولا يزيله ولا يدفع (8) محذوره. فوجب بقاؤه على تحريمه. عملاً بالأدلة المقتضية لذلك مع سلامتها (9) عن المعارض.

وأما كونه لا يحل شربه لغير ذلك إذا لم يضطر إليه لدفع لقمة غصّ بها؛ فلما تقدم من عموم الأدلة المقتضية للتحريم. فلأن لا تحل مع عدم الحاجة إليه بطريق الأولى.

 

الإنصاف في معرفة الراجح من الخلاف للمرداوي – دار إحياء التراث العربي – ج = ١٠، ص = ٢٢٩

قَوْلُهُ (وَلَا يَحِلُّ شُرْبُهُ لِلَذَّةٍ، وَلَا لِلتَّدَاوِي، وَلَا لِعَطَشٍ، وَلَا غَيْرِهِ، إلَّا أَنْ يُضْطَرَّ إلَيْهِ لِدَفْعِ لُقْمَةٍ غُصَّ بِهَا، فَيَجُوزُ) . يَعْنِي: إذَا لَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهُ، بِدَلِيلِ قَوْلِهِ ” إلَّا أَنْ يَضْطَرَّ إلَيْهِ “. قَالَ فِي الْفُرُوعِ: وَخَافَ تَلَفًا. فَائِدَةٌ: لَوْ وَجَدَ بَوْلًا وَالْحَالَةُ هَذِهِ قُدِّمَ عَلَى الْخَمْرِ، لِوُجُوبِ الْحَدِّ بِشُرْبِهِ دُونَ الْبَوْلِ. فَهُوَ أَخَفُّ تَحْرِيمًا، وَقَطَعَ بِهِ صَاحِبُ الْمُسْتَوْعِبِ، وَالْفُرُوعِ، وَغَيْرُهُمَا. وَلَوْ وَجَدَ مَاءً نَجِسًا قُدِّمَ عَلَيْهِمَا.

 

شرح منتهى الإرادات (دقائق أولي النهى لشرح المنتهى) للبهوتي – عالم الكتب – ج = ١، ص = ٣٤١

(وَيَحْرُمُ) تَدَاوٍ (بِمُحَرَّمٍ) مِنْ مَأْكُولٍ وَغَيْرِهِ، وَلَوْ بِصَوْتِ مَلْهَاةٍ لِعُمُومِ ” «وَلَا تَتَدَاوَوْا بِحَرَامٍ» ” وَيَدْخُلُ فِيهِ تِرْيَاقٌ فِيهِ لُحُومُ حَيَّاتٍ أَوْ خَمْرٍ وَيَجُوزُ بِبَوْلِ إبِلٍ نَصًّا لِلْخَبَرِ، وَنَبَاتٍ فِيهِ سُمِّيَّةٌ إنْ غَلَبَتْ السَّلَامَةُ مَعَ اسْتِعْمَالِهِ.

 

كشاف القناع عن متن الإقناع للبهوتي – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٢، ص = ٧٦

(وَيَحْرُمُ) التَّدَاوِي (بِسُمٍّ) لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَلا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ} [البقرة: 195] ” تَتِمَّةٌ ” يُكْرَهُ قَطْعُ الْبَاسُورِ، وَمَعَ خَوْفِ تَلَفٍ بِقَطْعِهِ يَحْرُمُ، وَبِتَرْكِهِ يُبَاحُ (فَإِنْ كَانَ الدَّوَاءُ مَسْمُومًا وَغَلَبَتْ مِنْهُ السَّلَامَةُ وَرُجِيَ نَفْعُهُ أُبِيحَ لِدَفْعِ مَا هُوَ أَعْظَمَ مِنْهُ، كَغَيْرِهِ مِنْ الْأَدْوِيَةِ) غَيْرِ الْمَسْمُومَةِ، وَدَفْعًا لِإِحْدَى الْمَفْسَدَتَيْنِ بِأَخَفَّ مِنْهَا (وَلَا بَأْسَ بِالْحُمِّيَّةِ) نَقَلَهُ حَنْبَلٌ قَالَ فِي الْفُرُوعِ وَيَتَوَجَّهُ أَنَّهَا مَسْأَلَةُ التَّدَاوِي وَلِأَنَّهُ يُسْتَحَبُّ، لِلْخَبَرِ «يَا عَلِيُّ لَا تَأْكُلْ مِنْ هَذَا وَكُلْ مِنْ هَذَا، فَإِنَّهُ أَوْفَقُ لَك» وَلِهَذَا لَا يَجُوزُ تَنَاوُلُ مَا ظُنَّ ضَرَرُهُ اهـ وَاَلَّذِي نَهَاهُ عَنْهُ: الرُّطَبُ وَاَلَّذِي أَمَرَهُ بِالْأَكْلِ مِنْهُ شَعِيرٌ وَسِلْقٌ وَالْحَدِيثُ رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَغَيْرُهُمْ وَقَالَ التِّرْمِذِيُّ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ.

(وَيَحْرُمُ) تَدَاوٍ (بِمُحَرَّمٍ أَكْلًا وَشُرْبًا وَكَذَا صَوْتُ مَلْهَاةٍ وَغَيْرُهُ) كَسَمَاعِ الْغِنَاءِ الْمُحَرَّمِ لِعُمُومِ قَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «وَلَا تَتَدَاوَوْا بِالْحَرَامِ» وَأَخْرَجَ ابْنُ عَسَاكِرَ عَنْ ابْنِ عُثْمَانَ وَالرَّبِيعِ وَأَبِي حَارِثَةَ عَنْ عُمَرَ أَنَّهُ كَتَبَ إلَى خَالِدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ أَنَّهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّك تُدَلِّكُ بِالْخَمْرِ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ حَرَّمَ ظَاهِرَ الْخَمْرِ وَبَاطِنَهَا

 

[ii] شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص – دار البشائر الإسلامية – ج = ٦، ص = ٣٩٣

مسألة: [الاضطرار لشرب الخمر] (وللمضطر أن يشرب من الخمر مقدار ما يمسك رمقه، وكذلك الميتة والدم، ولا يتناول أكثر من ذلك).

وذلك لقول الله تعالى:} إنما حرم عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما أهل به لغير الله فمن اضطر غير باغٍ ولا عادٍ فلا إثم عليه {.

فأباح الأكل منها عند الضرورة، وهو عند الخوف على النفس، فإذا تناول منها ما أمسك الرمق، فقد زال الخوف في هذه الحال، فيعود على حكم التحريم، لزوال الضرورة المبيحة لها.

والخمر وإن لم تكن مذكورة في الآية، فحكمها حكم ما هو مذكور فيها، لوجود الضرورة، وخوف التلف على النفس.

 

أحكام القرآن للجصاص – دار الكتب العلمية = ج = ١، ص = ١٥٤

بَابُ ذِكْرُ الضَّرُورَةِ الْمُبِيحَةِ لِأَكْلِ الْمَيْتَةِ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : { فَمَنْ اُضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إثْمَ عَلَيْهِ } وَقَالَ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى : {وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إلَّا مَا اُضْطُرِرْتُمْ إلَيْهِ} وَقَالَ: { فَمَنْ اُضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ } فَقَدْ ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الضَّرُورَةَ فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَاتِ ، وَأَطْلَقَ الْإِبَاحَةَ فِي بَعْضِهَا بِوُجُودِ الضَّرُورَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَرْطٍ وَلَا صِفَةٍ ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ : { وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إلَّا مَا اُضْطُرِرْتُمْ إلَيْهِ } فَاقْتَضَى ذَلِكَ وُجُودَ الْإِبَاحَةِ وَبِوُجُودِ الضَّرُورَةِ فِي كُلِّ حَالٍ وُجِدَتْ الضَّرُورَةَ فِيهَا .

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٦، ص = ٣٨٩

حاشية

وَحَاصِلُ الْمَعْنَى حِينَئِذٍ: أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَذِنَ لَكُمْ بِالتَّدَاوِي، وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً، فَإِذَا كَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ الدَّوَاءِ شَيْءٌ مُحَرَّمٌ وَعَلِمْتُمْ بِهِ الشِّفَاءَ، فَقَدْ زَالَتْ حُرْمَةُ اسْتِعْمَالِهِ لِأَنَّهُ تَعَالَى لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ (قَوْلُهُ دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ إلَخْ) أَقُولُ: فِيهِ نَظَرٌ لِأَنَّ إسَاغَةَ اللُّقْمَةِ بِالْخَمْرِ وَشُرْبَهُ لِإِزَالَةِ الْعَطَشِ إحْيَاءٌ لِنَفْسِهِ مُتَحَقِّقُ النَّفْعِ، وَلِذَا يَأْثَمُ بِتَرْكِهِ كَمَا يَأْثَمُ بِتَرْكِ الْأَكْلِ مَعَ الْقُدْرَةِ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ بِخِلَافِ التَّدَاوِي وَلَوْ بِغَيْرِ مُحَرَّمٍ فَإِنَّهُ لَوْ تَرَكَهُ حَتَّى مَاتَ لَا يَأْثَمُ كَمَا نَصُّوا عَلَيْهِ لِأَنَّهُ مَظْنُونٌ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَاهُ تَأَمَّلْ (قَوْلُهُ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْنَاهُ) أَيْ أَوَّلَ الْحَظْرِ وَالْإِبَاحَةِ حَيْثُ قَالَ الْأَكْلُ لِلْغِذَاءِ وَالشُّرْبُ لِلْعَطَشِ وَلَوْ مِنْ حَرَامٍ أَوْ مَيْتَةٍ أَوْ مَالِ غَيْرٍ وَإِنْ ضَمِنَهُ فَرْضٌ اهـ.

 

العناية شرح الهداية للبابرتي – دار الفكر – ج = ١٠، ص = ٦٧

وَقَوْلُهُ ( إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُسْتَعْمَلَ الْمُحَرَّمُ كَالْخَمْرِ وَنَحْوِهَا لِأَنَّ الِاسْتِشْفَاءَ بِالْمُحَرَّمِ حَرَامٌ ) قِيلَ إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً ، فَإِنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَيْسَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ آخَرُ غَيْرُهُ يَجُوزُ لَهُ الِاسْتِشْفَاءُ بِهِ .

وَمَعَ قَوْلِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ : إنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ .

يُحْتَمَلُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ذَلِكَ فِي دَاءٍ عُرِفَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ غَيْرُ الْمُحَرَّمِ ، لِأَنَّهُ يُسْتَغْنَى بِالْحَلَالِ عَنْ الْحَرَامِ .

وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُقَالَ: تَنْكَشِفُ الْحُرْمَةُ عِنْدَ الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يَكُونُ الشِّفَاءُ بِالْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ بِالْحَلَالِ.

 

عجالة المحتاج إلى توجيه المنهاج لابن الملقن – دار الكتاب (إربد) – ج = ١، ص = ٤٤٧

والتداوي بقصد الشفاء من الأفعال التي كلف الله بها الإنسان، فهي من الأعمال التي يجب أن يتقيد بها المسلم بالأحكام الشرعية. كدفع الجوع كالأكل، ودفع العطش بالشرب والارتواء، مع الفارق فِي النتيحة، لأن المرض يقع على الإنسان بقضاء الله، وجعل الله له الدواء، والشفاء من عند الله سبحانه وتعالى، فإذا أصاب دواء الداء برئ المريض بإذن الله، وإذا لم يصبه أجره على الله فِي الصبر والاحتساب. باستثناء الهرم، أي الموت، لأنه لا دواء له، والهرم نقص الصحة طبيعياً، فحال الأنسان فيه يقترب من الموت.

ولقد نهى الشارع عن التداوي بحرام، فعن أبي الدرداء – رضي الله عنه – قال، قال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: [إِنَّ الله أَنْزَلَ الدَّاءَ وَالدَّوَاءَ وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً فَتَدَاوَوْا وَلاَ تَدَاوَوْا بِحَرَامٍ]

وعن أم سلمة مرفوعاً: [إِنَّ الله لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيْمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ]. وعن ابن مسعود موقوفاً: [إِنَّ الله لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَجْعَلَ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيْمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ]. وعن أبي مسعود قال: (نَهَى رَسُولُ اللهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – عَنِ الدَّوَاءِ الْخَبِيْثِ). ومن دلالة النصوص المتقدمة يتضح للمكلف أن الأصل فِي الدواء ما كان حلالاً، ويحرم التداوي بالخبيث أو الحرام.

ولقد رخص الشارع التداوى بالحرام أو المحرم لعذر؛ عن أنس أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – رخص لعبد الرحمن بن عوف والزبير بن العوام فِي لبس الحرير لحكة كانت بهما ورخص للأعراب المرضى أن يشربوا من أبوال الإبل بقصد التداوي بعد حصول الشكوى، ذلك: [أَنَّ رَهْطاً مِنْ عُرَيْنَةَ أَتَوا النَّبِيَّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم -، فَقَالوْا: إِنَّا قَدِ اجْتَوَيْنَا الْمَدِيْنَةَ وَعَظُمَتْ بُطُونَنَا، وَارْتهَشَتْ أَعْضَاؤُنَا؛ فَأَمَرَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أَنْ يَلْحَقُواْ بِرَاعِي الإبِلِ، فَيَشْرَبُواْ مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا، فَلَحِقُواْ بِرَاعِي الإِبِلِ فَشَرِبُواْ مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا … الحديث]

والرخصة ما شرع من الأحكام لعذر، فيحصل بها إذن للمكلف من الشارع أن يفعل خلاف العزيمة فِي القيام بالفعل الممنوع أو ترك الفعل الواجب، وهى مقترنة بالحال التى استوجبها العذر فِي حينه، وليست على الدوام أو الإطلاق.

 

الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية لجمع من العلاماء – وزارة الأوقاف الكويت – ج = ١١، ص = ١١٨-١٢٠

التَّدَاوِي بِالنَّجَسِ وَالْمُحَرَّمِ:

8 – اتَّفَقَ الْفُقَهَاءُ عَلَى عَدَمِ جَوَازِ التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ وَالنَّجَسِ مِنْ حَيْثُ الْجُمْلَةُ، لِقَوْل النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَل شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ. وَلِقَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَل الدَّاءَ وَالدَّوَاءَ، وَجَعَل لِكُل دَاءٍ دَوَاءً، فَتَدَاوَوْا، وَلاَ تَتَدَاوَوْا بِالْحَرَامِ (1)

وَعَنْ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ كَتَبَ إِلَى خَالِدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ ” إِنَّهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكَ تُدَلِّكُ بِالْخَمْرِ، وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ حَرَّمَ ظَاهِرَ الْخَمْرِ وَبَاطِنَهَا، وَقَدْ حَرَّمَ مَسَّ الْخَمْرِ كَمَا حَرَّمَ شُرْبَهَا، فَلاَ تُمِسُّوهَا أَجْسَادَكُمْ، فَإِنَّهَا نَجَسٌ “.

وَقَدْ عَمَّمَ الْمَالِكِيَّةُ هَذَا الْحُكْمَ فِي كُل نَجَسٍ وَمُحَرَّمٍ، سَوَاءٌ أَكَانَ خَمْرًا، أَمْ مَيْتَةً، أَمْ أَيَّ شَيْءٍ حَرَّمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ التَّدَاوِي بِهِ عَنْ طَرِيقِ الشُّرْبِ أَوْ طِلاَءِ الْجَسَدِ بِهِ، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ صِرْفًا أَوْ مَخْلُوطًا مَعَ دَوَاءٍ جَائِزٍ، وَاسْتَثْنَوْا مِنْ ذَلِكَ حَالَةً وَاحِدَةً أَجَازُوا التَّدَاوِيَ بِهِمَا، وَهِيَ أَنْ يَكُونَ التَّدَاوِي بِالطِّلاَءِ، وَيُخَافُ بِتَرْكِهِ الْمَوْتُ، سَوَاءٌ كَانَ الطِّلاَءُ نَجَسًا أَوْ مُحَرَّمًا، صِرْفًا أَوْ مُخْتَلِطًا بِدَوَاءٍ جَائِزٍ.

وَأَضَافَ الْحَنَابِلَةُ إِلَى الْمُحَرَّمِ وَالنَّجَسِ كُل مُسْتَخْبَثٍ، كَبَوْل مَأْكُول اللَّحْمِ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ، إِلاَّ أَبْوَال الإِْبِل فَيَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِهَا، وَذَكَرَ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنَ الْحَنَابِلَةِ أَنَّ الدَّوَاءَ الْمَسْمُومَ إِنْ غَلَبَتْ مِنْهُ وَإِذَا كَانَ التَّدَاوِي بِالنَّجَسِ وَالْمُحَرَّمِ لِتَعْجِيل الشِّفَاءِ بِهِ، فَقَدْ ذَهَبَ الشَّافِعِيَّةُ إِلَى جَوَازِهِ بِالشُّرُوطِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ عِنْدَهُمْ، وَلِلْحَنَفِيَّةِ فِيهِ قَوْلاَنِ.

[iii] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٣، ص = ٢١١

حاشية

وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ حَقِيقَةَ الْعِلْمِ مُتَعَذِّرَةٌ، فَالْمُرَادُ إذَا غَلَبَ عَلَى الظَّنِّ وَإِلَّا فَهُوَ مَعْنَى الْمَنْعِ اهـ. وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ لَا يَجُوزُ فِي ظَاهِرِ الْمَذْهَبِ، أَصْلُهُ بَوْلُ مَا يُؤْكَلُ لَحْمُهُ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُشْرَبُ أَصْلًا. اهـ. (قَوْلُهُ بِالْمُحَرَّمِ) أَيْ الْمُحَرَّمُ اسْتِعْمَالُهُ طَاهِرًا كَانَ أَوْ نَجَسًا ح (قَوْلُهُ كَمَا مَرَّ) أَيْ قُبَيْلَ فَصْلِ الْبِئْرِ حَيْثُ قَالَ: فَرْعٌ اُخْتُلِفَ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ. وَظَاهِرُ الْمَذْهَبِ الْمَنْعُ كَمَا فِي إرْضَاعٍ الْبَحْرِ، لَكِنْ نَقَلَ الْمُصَنِّفُ ثَمَّةَ وَهُنَا عَنْ الْحَاوِي: وَقِيلَ يُرَخَّصُ إذَا عَلِمَ فِيهِ الشِّفَاءَ وَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ دَوَاءً آخَرَ كَمَا خُصَّ الْخَمْرُ لِلْعَطْشَانِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى. اهـ. ح

قُلْت: لَفْظُ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى رَأَيْته فِي نُسْخَتَيْنِ مِنْ الْمِنَحِ بَعْدَ الْقَوْلِ الثَّانِي كَمَا ذَكَرَهُ الشَّارِحُ كَمَا عَلِمْته، وَكَذَا رَأَيْته فِي الْحَاوِي الْقُدْسِيِّ، فَعُلِمَ أَنَّ مَا فِي نُسْخَةِ ط تَحْرِيفٌ فَافْهَمْ.

 

[iv] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع للكاساني – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ١، ص = ٦١-٦٢

وَالِاسْتِشْفَاءُ بِالْحَرَامِ جَائِزٌ عِنْدَ التَّيَقُّنِ لِحُصُولِ الشِّفَاءِ فِيهِ، كَتَنَاوُلِ الْمَيْتَةِ عِنْدَ الْمَخْمَصَةِ، وَالْخَمْرِ عِنْد الْعَطَشِ، وَإِسَاغَةِ اللُّقْمَةِ وَإِنَّمَا لَا يُبَاحُ بِمَا لَا يُسْتَيْقَنُ حُصُولُ الشِّفَاءِ بِهِ، ثُمَّ عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ يُبَاحُ شُرْبُهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي لِحَدِيثِ الْعُرَنِيِّينَ، وَعِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ لَا يُبَاحُ؛ لِأَنَّ الِاسْتِشْفَاءَ بِالْحَرَامِ الَّذِي لَا يُتَيَقَّنُ حُصُولُ الشِّفَاءِ بِهِ حَرَامٌ، وَكَذَا بِمَا لَا يُعْقَلُ فِيهِ الشِّفَاءُ وَلَا شِفَاءَ فِيهِ عِنْدَ الْأَطِبَّاءِ، وَالْحَدِيثُ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – عَرَفَ شِفَاءَ أُولَئِكَ فِيهِ عَلَى الْخُصُوصِ وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

نصاب الاحتساب لعمر بن محمد السنامي – مكتبة الطالب الجامعي – ص = ١٥٠

التداوي بالخمر أو بحرام آخر إن لم يتيقن فيه الشفاء لا يجوز بلا خلاف لأن الحرمة بيقين لا تترك بالشك في الشفاء. وإن تيقن بالشفاء فيه وله دواء آخر سواء، قيل لا يجوز أيضا لعدم تحقق الضرورة، وإن تيقن بالشفاء فيه ولا دواء له سواه قيل لا يجوز لقول ابن مسعود رشي الله تعالى عنه “ما جعل شفاؤكم فيما حرم عليكم” وقيل يجوز قياسا على شرب الخمر حالة العطش.

والجواب عن الأثر إنه لم يبق محرما للضرورة فلا يكون الشفاء في الخمر (الحرام). فللمحتسب أن يبعث إلى الأطباء أمينا يستوثق عليهم ألا يأمروا مريضا بالتداوي بالمحرمات (إلا بما ذكرناه) من الشرط.

 

شرح الحموي على الأشباه والنظائر لابن نجيم – إدارة القرآن ج = ١، ص = ٢٤٥

وأما جواز التيمم للخوف من شدة البرد للجنابة فالمراد من الخوف، الخوف من الاغتسال على نفسه، أو على عضو من أعضاءه أو من حصول المرض…والصحيح أنه لا يجوز للحدث الأصغر كما في الخانية لعدم اعتبار ذلك الخوف في أعضاء الوضوء.

شرح

يعني بناء على أنه مجرد وهم إذ لا يتحقق ذلك في المصر كما في الفتح.

 

[v] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٥، ص = ٢٢٨

مَطْلَبٌ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ (قَوْلُهُ وَرَدَّهُ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ إلَخْ) قَدَّمْنَا فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ عِنْدَ قَوْلِهِ وَلَبَنُ امْرَأَةٍ أَنَّ صَاحِبَ الْخَانِيَّةِ وَالنِّهَايَةِ اخْتَارَا جَوَازَهُ إنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَمْ يَجِدْ دَوَاءً غَيْرَهُ قَالَ فِي النِّهَايَةِ: وَفِي التَّهْذِيبِ يَجُوزُ لِلْعَلِيلِ شُرْبُ الْبَوْلِ وَالدَّمِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ لِلتَّدَاوِي إذَا أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءَهُ وَلَمْ يَجِدْ مِنْ الْمُبَاحِ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ، وَإِنْ قَالَ الطَّبِيبُ يَتَعَجَّلُ شِفَاؤُك بِهِ فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ، وَهَلْ يَجُوزُ شُرْبُ الْعَلِيلِ مِنْ الْخَمْرِ لِلتَّدَاوِي فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ، وَكَذَا ذَكَرَهُ الْإِمَامُ التُّمُرْتَاشِيُّ وَكَذَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ وَمَا قِيلَ إنَّ الِاسْتِشْفَاءَ بِالْحَرَامِ حَرَامٌ غَيْرُ مُجْرًى عَلَى إطْلَاقِهِ وَأَنَّ الِاسْتِشْفَاءَ بِالْحَرَامِ إنَّمَا لَا يَجُوزُ إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً أَمَّا إنْ عُلِمَ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ غَيْرَهُ يَجُوزُ وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – لَمْ يُجْعَلْ شِفَاؤُكُمْ فِيمَا حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ يَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَالَ ذَلِكَ فِي دَاءٍ عَرَفَ لَهُ دَوَاءً غَيْرَ الْمُحَرَّمِ لِأَنَّهُ حِينَئِذٍ يَسْتَغْنِي بِالْحَلَالِ عَنْ الْحَرَامِ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُقَالَ تَنْكَشِفُ الْحُرْمَةُ عِنْدَ الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يَكُونُ الشِّفَاءُ بِالْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّمَا يَكُونُ بِالْحَلَالِ اهـ نُورُ الْعَيْنِ مِنْ آخِرِ الْفَصْلِ التَّاسِعِ وَالْأَرْبَعِينَ.

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ١، ص = ٢١٠ 

(قَوْلُهُ وَطَهَّرَهُ مُحَمَّدٌ) أَيْ لِحَدِيثِ الْعُرَنِيِّينَ الَّذِينَ رَخَّصَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنْ يَشْرَبُوا مِنْ أَبْوَالِ الْإِبِلِ لِسَقَمٍ أَصَابَهُمْ، وَعَلَيْهِ فَلَا يَفْسُدُ الْمَاءُ مَا لَمْ يَغْلِبْ عَلَيْهِ فَيُخْرِجُهُ عَنْ الطَّهُورِيَّةِ، وَالْمُتُونُ عَلَى قَوْلِهِمَا، وَلِذَا قَالَ فِي الْإِمْدَادِ: وَالْفَتْوَى عَلَى قَوْلِهِمَا (قَوْلُهُ لَا لِلتَّدَاوِي وَلَا لِغَيْرِهِ) بَيَانٌ لِلتَّعْمِيمِ فِي قَوْلِهِ أَصْلًا (قَوْلُهُ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ) وَأَمَّا عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ فَإِنَّهُ وَإِنْ وَافَقَهُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ نَجِسٌ لِحَدِيثِ «اسْتَنْزِهُوا مِنْ الْبَوْلِ» إلَّا أَنَّهُ أَجَازَ شُرْبَهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي لِحَدِيثِ الْعُرَنِيِّينَ. وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ يَجُوزُ مُطْلَقًا. وَأَجَابَ الْإِمَامُ عَنْ حَدِيثِ الْعُرَنِيِّينَ بِأَنَّهُ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – عَرَفَ شِفَاءَهُمْ بِهِ وَحْيًا وَلَمْ يَتَيَقَّنْ شِفَاءَ غَيْرِهِمْ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَرْجِعَ فِيهِ الْأَطِبَّاءُ وَقَوْلُهُمْ لَيْسَ بِحُجَّةٍ، حَتَّى لَوْ تَعَيَّنَ الْحَرَامُ مِدْفَعًا لِلْهَلَاكِ يَحِلُّ كَالْمَيْتَةِ وَالْخَمْرِ عِنْدَ الضَّرُورَةِ، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ.

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) – دار الفكر – ج = ٣، ص = ٢١١

(وَلَمْ يُبَحْ الْإِرْضَاعُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ) لِأَنَّهُ جَزْءُ آدَمِيٍّ وَالِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ ضَرُورَةٍ حَرَامٌ عَلَى الصَّحِيحِ شَرْحُ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ. وَفِي الْبَحْرِ: لَا يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ فِي ظَاهِرِ الْمَذْهَبِ، أَصْلُهُ بَوْلُ الْمَأْكُولِ كَمَا مَرَّ.

حاشية

(قَوْلُهُ وَفِي الْبَحْرِ) عِبَارَتُهُ: وَعَلَى هَذَا أَيْ الْفَرْعِ الْمَذْكُورِ لَا يَجُوزُ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ لِلتَّدَاوِي. قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَأَهْلُ الطِّبِّ يُثْبِتُونَ لِلَبَنِ الْبِنْتِ أَيْ الَّذِي نَزَلَ بِسَبَبِ بِنْتٍ مُرْضِعَةٍ نَفْعًا لِوَجَعِ الْعَيْنِ. وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَشَايِخُ فِيهِ، قِيلَ لَا يَجُوزُ، وَقِيلَ يَجُوزُ إذَا عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ يَزُولُ بِهِ الرَّمَدُ.

 

درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام لملا خسرو – دار إحياء الكتب العربية – ج = ١، ص = ٣١٩

حاشية الشرنبلالي

وَفِي النِّهَايَةِ أَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ كَالْخَمْرِ وَالْبَوْلِ إذَا أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَمْ يَجِدْ غَيْرَهُ مِنْ الْمُبَاحِ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ وَالْحُرْمَةُ تَرْتَفِعُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ مُتَدَاوِيًا بِالْحَرَامِ فَلَمْ يَتَنَاوَلْهُ حَدِيثُ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – أَنَّهُ – عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ – قَالَ «إنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ» أَوْ يُحْمَلُ أَنَّهُ قَالَهُ فِي دَاءٍ عُرِفَ لَهُ دَوَاءٌ غَيْرَ الْمُحَرَّمِ، كَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ.

 

[vi] المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني لابن مازة البخاري – دار الكتب العلمية – ج = ٥، ص = ٣٧٣

وفي «النوازل» : الرجل إذا ظهر به داء، فقال له الطبيب: قد غلبك الدم فأخرجه، فلم يخرجه حتى مات لا يكون مأخوذاً؛ لأنه لا يعلم يقيناً أن الشفاء فيه، وفيه أيضاً: استطلق بطنه، أو رمدت عينه، فلم يعالج حتى أضعفه ومات بسببه لا إثم عليه؛ فرق بين هذا وبينما إذا جاع ولم يأكل مع القدرة على الأكل حتى مات فإنه يأثم، والفرق: أن الأكل قدر قوته فيه شفاء يتعين، فإذا تركه صار مهلكاً نفسه، ولا كذلك المعالجة. التداوي بلبن الأتان إذا أشاروا إليه لا بأس به؛ هكذا ذكر هنا.

قال الصدر الشهيد رحمه الله: وفيه نظر؛ لأن لبن الأتان حرام، والاستشفاء بالحرام حرام، وما قاله الصدر الشهيد فهو غير مجرىً على إطلاقه، فإن الاستشفاء بالمحرم إنما لا يجوز إذا لم يعلم أن فيه شفاءً؛ أما إذا علم أن فيه شفاء، وليس له دواء آخر غيره فيجوز الاستشفاء به؛ ألا ترى إلى ما ذكر محمد رحمه الله في كتاب الأشربة إذا خاف الرجل على نفسه العطش، ووجد الخمر شربها إن كان يدفع عطشه؛ لكن يشرب بقدر ما يرويه ويدفع عطشه، ولا يشرب للزيادة على الكفاية.

وقد حكي عن بعض مشايخ بلخ: أنه سئل عن معنى قول ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه: إن الله تعالى لم يجعل شفاءكم فيما حرم عليكم؛ يجوز أن عبد الله قال ذلك في داء عرف له دواء غير المحرم؛ لأنه حينئذٍ يستغني بالحلال عن الحرام، ويجوز أن يقال: تكشف الحرمة عند الحاجة، فلا يكون الشفاء في الحرام، وإنما يكون في الحلال.

 

المبسوط للسرخسي – دار المعرفة – ج = ٢٤، ص = ٩-١٠

(أَلَا تَرَى) أَنَّ الْبَنْجَ لَا بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يَتَدَاوَى بِهِ الْإِنْسَانُ، فَإِذَا كَادَ أَنْ يَذْهَبَ عَقْلُهُ مِنْهُ، فَلَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ذَلِكَ، وَفِي هَذَا كُلِّهِ بَيَانٌ أَنَّ الْمُحَرَّمَ هُوَ السُّكْرُ إلَّا أَنَّ الْخَمْرَ الْقَلِيلَ يَدْعُو إلَى الْكَثِيرِ كَمَا قَرَّرْنَا، فَيَحْرُمُ شُرْبُ الْقَلِيلِ مِنْهَا؛ لِأَنَّهَا دَاعِيَةٌ إلَى الْكَثِيرِ، وَذَلِكَ فِي الْمُثَلَّثِ لَا يُوجَدُ، فَإِنَّهُ غَلِيظٌ لَا يَدْعُو قَلِيلُهُ إلَى كَثِيرِهِ بَلْ بِالْقَلِيلِ يَسْتَمْرِئُ طَعَامَهُ، وَيَتَقَوَّى عَلَى الطَّاعَةِ، وَالْكَثِيرُ يُصَدِّعُ رَأْسَهُ.

(أَلَا تَرَى) أَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَعْتَادُونَ شُرْبَ الْمُسْكِرِ لَا يَرْغَبُونَ فِي الْمُثَلَّثِ أَصْلًا، وَلَا يُقَالُ: الْقَدَحُ الْأَخِيرُ مُسْكِرٌ بِمَا تَقَدَّمَهُ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُسْكِرَ مَا يَتَّصِلُ بِهِ السُّكْرُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمُتْخِمِ مِنْ الطَّعَامِ، فَإِنَّ تَنَاوُلَ الطَّعَامِ بِقَدْرِ مَا يُغَذِّيهِ، وَيُقَوِّي بَدَنَهُ حَلَالٌ، وَمَا يُتْخِمُهُ، وَهُوَ الْأَكْلُ، فَوْقَ الشِّبَعِ حَرَامٌ ثُمَّ الْمُحَرَّمُ مِنْهُ الْمُتْخِمُ، وَهُوَ مَا زَادَ عَلَى الشِّبَعِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ هَذَا لَا يَكُونُ مُتْخِمًا إلًّا بِاعْتِبَارِ مَا تَقَدَّمَهُ، فَكَذَلِكَ فِي الشَّرَابِ. .

وَعَنْ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – أَنَّ إنْسَانًا أَتَاهُ، وَفِي بَطْنِهِ صَفْرَاءُ، فَقَالَ وُصِفَ لِي السُّكْرُ، فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: إنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَبِهِ نَأْخُذُ، فَنَقُولُ: كُلُّ شَرَابٍ مُحَرَّمٍ، فَلَا يُبَاحُ شُرْبُهُ لِلتَّدَاوِي حَتَّى رُوِيَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ أَنَّ رَجُلًا أَتَى يَسْتَأْذِنُهُ فِي شُرْبِ الْخَمْرِ لِلتَّدَاوِي قَالَ إنْ كَانَ فِي بَطْنِكَ صَفْرَاءُ، فَعَلَيْك بِمَاءِ السُّكَّرِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ بِك رُطُوبَةٌ، فَعَلَيْك بِمَاءِ الْعَسَلِ، فَهُوَ أَنْفَعُ لَك، فَفِي هَذَا إشَارَةٌ إلَى أَنَّهُ لَا تَتَحَقَّقُ الضَّرُورَةُ فِي الْإِصَابَةِ مِنْ الْحَرَامِ، فَإِنَّهُ يُوجَدُ مِنْ جِنْسِهِ مَا يَكُونُ حَلَالًا، وَالْمَقْصُودُ يَحْصُلُ بِهِ، وَقَدْ دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ قَوْلُ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «إنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ فِي رِجْسٍ شِفَاءً»، وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بِهِ نَفْيَ الشِّفَاءِ أَصْلًا، فَقَدْ يُشَاهَدُ ذَلِكَ، وَلَا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يَقَعَ الْخُلْفُ فِي خَبَرِ الشَّرْعِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -، وَلَكِنَّ الْمُرَادَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يُعَيِّنْ رِجْسًا لِلشِّفَاءِ عَلَى وَجْهٍ لَا يُوجَدُ مِنْ الْحَلَالِ مَا يَعْمَلُ عَمَلَهُ، أَوْ يَكُونُ أَقْوَى منه.

 

[vii] التعليق منا

لم أره صريحا في كتب المذهب الحنفي ولكن لعله يندرج تحت الاستحسان لأن القياس يأبى استعمال الحرام في حالة عدم الحاجة. ولكن المقصود من التداوي الشفاء والوقت في هذه الحالة محدودة وبانتظار المرض قد يفوت المقصود وهو الشفاء. فالاستحسان تفيد اعتبار الحاجة في الحال ولو قبل المرض. والله أعلم. ولكن هذا الجواز بشرط غلبة الظن بأن يخبره الطبيب أن المرض يصيبه أو يعلم أن المرض قد أصاب كثيرا من الناس في ذلك البلد مثلا، وأيضا يشترط غلبة الظن بأن الضرر الذي يصيبه يهلكه أو يضره شديدا وأنه ليس دواء آخر حلال. ويستأنس في المسألة بالمذهب الشافعي لأنهم أباحوا في بعض الأحوال الاستشفاء بالحرام لضرر أو ألم أو حاجة التي لم تصب بعد:

 

نهاية المحتاج إلى شرح المنهاج للرملي – دار الفكر – ج = ٨، ص = ١٣-١٤

حاشية الشبراملسي

أَقُولُ: لَوْ قِيلَ يَكْفِي مُجَرَّدُ مَرَضٍ تَحْصُلُ مَعَهُ مَشَقَّةٌ، وَلَا سِيَّمَا إنْ غَلَبَ امْتِدَادُهُ بِالطِّفْلِ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَعِيدًا (قَوْلُهُ: إنْقَاذًا لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ الْهَلَاكِ) أَيْ وَعَلَى هَذَا لَوْ مَاتَ بِشُرْبِهِ مَاتَ شَهِيدًا لِجَوَازِ تَنَاوُلِهِ لَهُ بَلْ.

 

تحفة الحبيب على شرح الخطيب حاشية البجيرمي على الخطيب – دار الفكر – ج = ٤، ص = ١٩١

قَوْلُهُ: (وَيَجُوزُ تَنَاوُلُ مَا يُزِيلُ الْعَقْلَ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْأَشْرِبَةِ) : بِنَحْوِ بَنْجٍ لِقَطْعِ عُضْوٍ اهـ قَالَ ع ش عَلَى م ر: وَهَلْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا يَقَعُ لِمَنْ أَخَذَ بِكْرًا وَتَعَذَّرَ عَلَيْهِ افْتِضَاضُهَا إلَّا بِإِطْعَامِهَا مَا يُغَيِّبُ عَقْلَهَا مِنْ نَحْوِ بَنْجٍ، أَوْ حَشِيشٍ فِيهِ نَظَرٌ وَلَا يَبْعُدُ أَنَّهُ مِثْلُهُ، لِأَنَّهُ وَسِيلَةٌ إلَى تَمْكِينِ الزَّوْجِ مِنْ الْوُصُولِ إلَى حَقِّهِ، وَمَعْلُومٌ أَنَّ مَحَلَّ جَوَازِ وَطْئِهَا مَا لَمْ يَحْصُلْ بِهِ لَهَا أَذًى لَا يَحْتَمِلُ مِثْلَهُ فِي إزَالَةِ الْبَكَارَةِ. اهـ.

 

True Love?

In today’s world, a lot of young people are afflicted by a serious illness that is even more deadly than any virus or bacteria. It is an illness that affects the heart and will cause its death, if not treated.

This illness is none other than love before marriage and it is with great sadness that a lot of youth fail to realize that in reality there is no such thing as “true” love before marriage, yes, there might be crushes, infatuations and the likes, but true love? No.

Some people might argue and say, how can you make such a bold statement?

To that I reply, love is what creates happiness not sorrow, love is what gives you a peace of mind not worry and anguish but most importantly, love is that which brings you closer to Allah Azza wajal, not that which will push you further away from Him and incur His wrath.

Yet there are a few brothers and sisters, who truly love Allah, only to find their hearts crippled by this disease, they have apparently fallen in “love” with the opposite gender (before marriage) and can’t seem to stop thinking about them and become neglectful of life as a whole.

These individuals sometimes regret falling in love and want a way out, they want a cure for this illness, but is there really a cure?

Listen to what Imam Ibn al-Qayyim Rahimahullah has to say:

“And the cure for this deadly illness (i.e. love before marriage) is for the person that is afflicted to realize that this love is only due to his/her own delusions and ignorance.

So upon such a person is to first and foremost strengthen their Tawheed and reliance upon Allah,

and secondly to increase in worship and busy themselves with it, so much so that they do not have any spare time letting their minds wander and think about their beloved.

And they should call upon Allah to protect them and save them from this evil, just as Prophet Yusuf called upon Allah and he was saved.

And they should do as he did, be as he was, in terms of ikhlaas (sincerity) and remembering Allah in abundance.

This is because if the heart is filled with ikhlaas for the sake of Allah, there will be no space left for any unlawful love to be present, rather this only happens to a heart that is empty and has no ikhlaas whatsoever.

And let such people remind themselves that whatever Allah has decreed for them is only in their own best interests, and when Allah commands something it is never to cause harm or misery to His slaves.

And let them also remind themselves that their unlawful love does not benefit them, neither in this world or the hereafter!

As for this world then they will be so preoccupied with their love that it will cripple them and will cause them to live in a fantasy world.

And as for the hereafter then it will cause them to be preoccupied with the love of the creation instead of love for the Creator!

These people need to be reminded, that the one who is emerged in something will never see its ill effects, neither will the person who has never experienced such things.

The only people who will be able to relate to them are those who have experienced the same thing but have been saved. Such people can look back and realize how evil it is.” [ad-Daa’ wa ad-Dawaa p. 300]

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The Right Choice

In the fast developing world of today, a lot depends on “Making the Right Choice

Making the incorrect choice is sometimes detrimental, depending on the venture at hand. Conversely, at times one can live with its consequences or even make up for the loss.

 

Din is delicate

When it comes to the affairs of one’s Din (Religion) the margin for error is very fine. Therefore making the correct choice is absolutely essential.

Sayyiduna ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) use to command the masses to accept knowledge only from reliable sources. (Fathul Mulhim, vol.1 pg.264)

This refers to:

  • Choosing the correct book,
  • Choosing the correct website,
  • Choosing the correct tutor or lecturer etc.

In essence it boils down to choosing the correct source of knowledge and information.

Just as we do when we consult in matters of worldly gain; we ensure that the consultant is adequately qualified.

 

A Screening Process

“Knowledge is indeed part of your religion” said the great Tabi’i, Imam Muhammad ibn Sirin (rahimahullah). He further advised: “So be careful as to whom you accept your matters of din from” (Muqaddimah Sahih Muslim)

This statement highlights the fact that not every person who claims to be an educator in Din is a legitimate one. Therefore not every “Islamic” radio station, booklet, speaker or web-page can be endorsed.

The need for a screening process is evident from the Hadith in which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“A time will arrive when not a single ‘Alim will remain; people will then resort to ignorant leaders who will pass rulings without proper knowledge, thereby deviating and causing others to be the same.” (Sahih Bukhari)

 

Precaution of the Predecessors

Our pious predecessors were extremely selective when it came to choosing an educator.

Imam Malik (rahimahullah) says: “I saw (Imam) Ayub Al-Sakhtiyani (rahimahullah) in Makkah on two separate occasions of Haj. During the third haj I saw him seated near the zam zam well, and each time he heard the name of Rasulullah he cried to the extent that I would take pity on him. Only after seeing such qualities in him did I accept Hadiths from him.” (Adabul Ikhtilaf, pg. 58)

The teacher of Imam Malik, Imam Rabi’ah (rahimahullah) was seen crying in seclusion. When he was asked about the cause for him crying, he replied: “A catastrophe has befallen Islam, Ignorant people have been referred to in matters of Religion.” (ibid, pg. 53, Jami’u bayanil ‘ilm, vol.2 pg. 201)

Ibn Sirin (rahimahullah) passed away in the year: 110 A.H, and Imam Rabi’ah (rahimahullah) in the year: 136 A.H, but the statement of each one of them is more applicable today than it was then.

 

Contamination and Confusion

The influx of Islamic literature and “religious speakers” has reached an alarming level locally and internationally. Undoubtedly, many of these are legitimate and reliable, but the existence of contaminated literature and incompatible lecturers is eminent. The honourable public is therefore strongly urged to be vigilant and to refer to their senior ‘Ulama and Madrasahs to first verify any source of information before accepting it; be it in the form of websites, booklets, journals or even lecturers. Imam Muslim (rahimahullah) – the author of the famous “Sahih Muslim” says: “It is incumbent upon every capable person to refrain from accepting knowledge from unqualified, innovative and obscure sources.”

 

Note: Those who cannot differentiate should abstain or refer to those who can.

Failure to do so will lead to confusion in Din. May Allah Ta’ala keep us all on the correct path. Amin.

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Reciting the Six Bismillah while Travelling

In order to acquire ease during one’s journey, one should recite the five surahs with six bismillah. The five surahs are Surah Kaafiroon, Surah Nasr, Surah Ikhlaas, Surah Falaq and Surah Naas (one will leave out reciting Surah Lahab in between). One should commence with bismillah, recite bismillah between the surahs and end with bismillah.

عن جبير بن مطعم قال: قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: أتحب يا جبير إذا خرجت سفرا أن تكون من أمثل أصحابك هيئة , وأكثرهم زادا؟ فقلت: نعم، بأبي أنت وأمي، قال: فاقرأ هذه السور الخمس، قل يأيها الكافرون، وإذا جاء نصر الله والفتح، وقل هو الله أحد، وقل أعوذ برب الفلق، وقل أعوذ برب الناس، وافتح كل سورة ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم، واختم قراءتك ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم قال جبير: وكنت غنيا كثير المال، فكنت أخرج مع من شاء الله أن أخرج معهم في سفر، فأكون أبذهم هيئة , وأقلهم زادا، فما زلت منذ علمنيهن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وقرأت بهن , أكون من أحسنهم هيئة , وأكثرهم زادا حتى أرجع من سفري ذلك (مسند أبي يعلى رقم 7419)

Hazrat Jubayr ibn Mut’im (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said to him: “O Jubayr! When you go on a journey, would you love to be in a better condition than your companions, and with more provisions than them?” I said, “Yes, indeed, may my parents be sacrificed for you.” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: “Recite these five surahs, Surah Kaafiroon, Surah Nasr, Surah Ikhlaas, Surah Falaq and Surah Naas. Commence each surah by reciting bismillah before it and (recite bismillah) once at the end of your recitation (of the five surahs).” Hazrat Jubayr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) says: “I was a person of affluence and I travelled with those whom Allah Ta‘ala had willed. I used to end up during the journey being in an unpleasant and pitiful condition and with the least amount of provisions and resources. From the time I learnt this du‘aa and began reciting it when travelling, I would always be in a good state and my provisions and resources always remained the most until I returned home from my journey.”

How Many ‘Likes’ are Enough?

Have you ever wondered what drives a person to take his own life by leaping off a bridge, slashing his wrists, intentionally overdosing on medication or holding a gun to his head and pulling the trigger? The answer – in most cases, he is driven to the brink of despair by the overwhelming feeling that nobody ‘likes’ him or cares about him. Hence, by setting out to take his life, he is actually pleading for people to give him the attention that he so desperately craves.

In essence, it all boils down to people’s need to be liked and feel accepted. For some people, the need to be liked and feel accepted is so overwhelming that they allow it to dominate their entire existence. The food they eat, the clothing they wear, the partner they marry – almost every choice they make in life is based on how it will resonate with people and how many ‘likes’ it will receive.

The reality of the matter, however, is that these ‘likes’ do not mean that people actually like us. Rather, they merely like the image and lifestyle which we portray to them. It is for this reason that if one has to post something that clashes with the popularist culture, condemnation will be swift and merciless. Those very followers who once fanatically followed us and liked our every post will now turn against us, troll us, label us and ‘lynch’ us online. Such is the fickleness of such followers and such is the fallacy of their likes and loyalty which shifts as rapidly as the wind…

The solution, to the human need for acceptance and to be liked, is to change our focus. Instead of anxiously waiting for random people to approve of us and like us, we need to realize that we only need ONE like to be happy and feel accepted – the ‘like’ of Allah Ta‘ala. Instead of ‘bending over backwards’ to impress people, we must rather make every effort to please Allah Ta‘ala and secure His ‘like’, for when Allah Ta‘ala blesses a person with His divine ‘like’ and acceptance, it fills the heart with such happiness that even if the entire world rejects you, it will be of little consequence to you and will not greatly affect you.

Nabi Nooh (‘alaihis salaam) had very few followers as the majority of his people rejected him and did not ‘like’ him (as they did not wish to abandon their evil and sin). The same applies to Nabi Loot (‘alaihis salaam) and many other Ambiyaa (‘alaihimus salaam). Even our beloved Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was boycotted and ostracized by the Quraish in the early days of Islam. However, despite the lack of popularity and ‘likes’ among the masses, they knew, without a shadow of doubt, that as long as they had the ‘like’ of Allah Ta‘ala, they had nothing to worry about.

Love from Above​
Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Indeed when Allah Ta‘ala loves a servant (due to the servant continuously striving to please Allah Ta‘ala and earn His love), then Allah Ta‘ala calls Jibreel (‘alaihis salaam) and says, “Indeed I love so-and-so, so you love him.” Thus, Jibreel (‘alaihis salaam) also loves this person. Thereafter, Jibreel (‘alaihis salaam) announces in the sky, “Indeed Allah Ta‘ala loves so-and-so, so love him.” Hence, the inhabitants of the sky love him, after which acceptance (and love) is placed for him in the hearts of the inhabitants of the earth. (Saheeh Bukhaari #7485)

People, by nature, have the need to feel accepted, loved and wanted. It is this same need which drives certain people to post details of their lives on social media, as they hope to attract admiration and love. Hence, it is no wonder that for such people, it is all about acquiring as many ‘likes’ as you can, as a ‘like’ is taken as a sign of acceptance and love.

Similarly, many people fear losing love and acceptance, and so always strive to conform to the expectations of others – even if it be at the expense of their own happiness, and even worse… their Deen. One such example, which although often quoted, remains as relevant as ever, is that of attending mixed functions (where strange men and women intermingle or the laws of hijaab and niqaab are not upheld) in order to remain ‘good’ with everyone and avoid falling from favour.

In the hadeeth above, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has explained that if a person wants acceptance and love – he will have to acquire it from above. One will have to strive to earn the love and acceptance of Allah Ta‘ala by always obeying Him and making an effort to do that which is pleasing to Him. Through this effort, one will acquire the love of Allah Ta‘ala, after which Allah Ta‘ala will cause the creation to love him as well.

It is for this reason that we find people from all walks of life flocking to the pious servants of Allah Ta‘ala, as bees flock to honey, as the love for the servants has been instilled into their hearts from above. Conversely, if we displease Allah Ta‘ala, then He will cause the creation to dislike us and be displeased with us. (Saheeh Muslim #6705)

The message is simple – if we want our relationship with people (be they our spouse, children, in-laws, neighbours, friends, etc.) to be one of happiness, we will have to first fix our relationship with Allah Ta‘ala. Until and unless Allah Ta‘ala is not pleased with us, we will never acquire true happiness and acceptance.

May Allah Ta‘ala bless us all with His love and acceptance, aameen.

Remember, we don’t need a thousand, a hundred, or even ten ‘likes’ to be happy. All we need is one like – the ‘like’ of Allah Ta‘ala which is earned through pleasing Him.

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Recommended times for using the Miswak

Perhaps the most encapsulating Hadith on the importance of brushing the teeth with a Miswak is the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Umamah (radiyallahu’anhu) wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam) says:

“Use the Miswak, for it is a means of cleansing the mouth and attaining the pleasure of Allah. Every time Jibril (‘alayhi salam) came to me he advised me to use the Miswak, to an extent that I feared it may become obligatory for me and my ummah to use it. If it wasn’t for the fear of creating difficulty upon my followers, I would have made it binding on them. Indeed I use the Miswak so much that I fear for my gums”

(Ibn Majah, Hadith:289, see Targheeb 1/166)

The Scholars have enumerated up to ten different moments in which the Miswak should be used:

1. Upon awakening
2. While making wudhu
3. Before offering salah (provided the gums don’t bleed)
4. Before reciting the Holy Quran
5. Before meeting with people
6. Upon entering the home
7. When one is hungry
8. When the teeth become yellow
9. When the mouth has a bad odour
10. Before death (if one can sense it)

References:
Fathul Qadeer, vol.1 pg.22, Raddul Muhtar (Shami) vol.1 Pgs.113-114, and Khisalul Fitrah of Imam Abu Shamah Al-Maqdisi (rahimahullah) pgs.27-37

This explains the emphasis Islam lays on Dental care.

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